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VOL. 1, NO. 1/ OCTOBER, 1966 

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Volume I Number I 



The Year of the Deer Dean Wohlgemuth 

Deer hunting prospects for this season 

Keep Your Eye on the Deer Trails Dick Whittington 
How to hunt Georgia whitetails 

Fall is For Hunting— Usually Jim Tyler 

It's also a good time to go fishing 

A Crop To Be Harvested Jim Tyler 

Management is the key to hig deer herds 

Meet Your Commissioner Jim Morrison 

Judge Harley Langdale, chairman 

To Catch a Fish Jim Morrison 12 

Where the License Increase is Going 

Big Medicine for Big Bucks Dean Wohlgemuth 14 

Selecting the right deer rifle for you 

Sportsman's Calendar 17 

Up-To-Date Hunting, Fishing Season Information 

* # * 

Carl E. Sanders 

Judge Harley Langdale, 


Valdosta-8th District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan-6th District 

James Darby 
Vidalia-lst District 

Richard Tift 
Albany-2nd District 

William E. Smith 
Americus-3rd District 


Leonard Bassford, 

Vice Chairman 
Augusta- 10th District 

Charles L. Davidson, Jr. 
Avondale Estates-4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Adanta-5th District 

J. B. Langford 
Calhoun-7th District 

Edgar B. Dunlap 
Gainesville-9th District 

Jimmic Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



Howard D. Zeller Jack A. Crockford 

Program Planning Field Operations 


1, Fisheries 

' a forcement 

Charles M. Frisbie, 

Marine Fisheries 

Jim Morrison, Information and 


:. V. Waters, Gainesville, N. Ga. Frank Parrish, Fitzgerald, S. Ga. 
VV. Thomaston, David Gould, Brunswick, Coast 

Fort Valley, M. Ga. 


Jim Morrison, Editor 

Dean Wohlgemuth, 

Managing Editi 

Dan Kccver, Photographer 

Jim Tyler, Staff Writer 
Glenn Smith, Stall Writer 

A New Voice for Wildlife Conservation 

Dreams do come true . . . yes, Georgia, now there is a 
Game and Fish Commission magazine. 

For quite a long time, now, the dream has been con- 
fined to the minds of several people. For a dream to 
become a reality, a great deal of action must take place 
. . . action, effort and just plain hard work. 

The names of some of these people appear on this 
page in the lefthand column, but many others too num- 
erous to name here deserve equal credit. These are the 
men often described as "sportsmen" who provide the 
backbone of the wildlife conservation movement in 
Georgia, whether they are members of an organized 
group or not. 

These people felt strongly that the Game and Fish 
Commission needed a stronger and more effective voice 
for communicating to the sportsmen it serves. We be- 
lieve that too, and we pledge to do our best through 
these pages to accomplish this. 

It is the purpose of this magazine to keep its readers 
informed of the wildlife conservation activities of the 
Georgia Game and Fish Commission to secure public 
support for and cooperation with these programs. We 
intend to help increase the enjoyment which sportsmen 
receive from hunting, fishing and boating by furnishing 
current, accurate information on the best methods, lo- 
cations, and times to participate in their favorite out- 
door sports. We want to "shorten the time between 
bites," and help hunters find their quarry, without en- 
dangering the safety of the participants or the future of 
Georgia's wildlife resources, which will need even greater 
protection and development in the face of a rapidly ex- 
panding population. 

To give everyone an opportunity to see what we have 
to offer and what we plan to do with our new magazine, 
the first four issues will be made available free of charge. 
Beginning with the issue of February. 1967, readers may 
continue to receive the publication for a small subscrip- 
tion fee of $1 for one year, or $2.50 for three years. 
This small token fee will be used to help cover the ex- 
pense of handling and mailing. "Georgia Outdoors," 
the free monthly newsletter of the Game and Fish Com- 
mission for the past three years, has been permanently 
discontinued. We hope that you will like its successor 
well enough to subscribe for a full three year period. 

Deer Story — In this issue you'll find the story in pictures 
and words of Georgia's growing deer herd— how it came 
about, where it can be found, and how to hunt it. 

In future issues, we'll concentrate on other popular Geor- 
gia game species, including the bobwhite quail, doves, rab- 
bits, and squirrels. For the fisherman, we'll have articles 
throughout the year like the one in this issue on fall fishing. 
During the spring and summer when there's little or nothing 
to hunt, we'll concentrate on fishing. Stick with us. It's going 
to be an interesting year. J.M. 

On the Cover — Breaking for cover, a whitetail buck, Geor- 
gia's most prized big game animal, presents a target few 
hunters can resist. Photo by Jim Morrison. 

Photo Credits: Hubert Handy 8 and 9; Dan Keever 1, 6. 
b. r. 7, 13, 14. 15; Jim Morrison 2, 3, 4. 5, b. I. 7, b. r. and 
b. I. 9. t. and b. r. I 1. 12; Jim Tvler c. 9. 

Georgia Game and Fish is the official monthly magazine of the Geor- 
gia Game and Fish Commission, published at the Commission's of- 
fices, 401 State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. So advertising ac- 
cepted. Subscriptions are $1 for one year or $2.50 for three years. 
Printed by Stein Printing Company. Atlanta. Ga. Notification of ad- 
dress change must include both old and new address and ZIP code, 
with M) days notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without 
ZIP code. Articles and photographs may be reprinted. Proper credit 
should be given. Contributions are welcome, but the editors assume 

responsibility or liability for loss or damage of articles, photo- 
.raps, or illustrations. Application to mail at second-class postage 

ates is pending at Atlanta, Georgia. 

The big moment is at hand for this hunter, as he draws a fine bead on a dandy buck in 
Georgia's forest lands. There's better hunting for everyone this year. 


Chances ot getting a deer are better for more 
Georgia hunters, thanks to a continually growing herd 

By Dean Wohlgemuth Did you get 

your buck last year? If not, don't give up 
hope. There's probably a better chance 
you'll bag your venison this season. 

For several years now, Georgia's deer 
hunting trend has been one of improve- 
ment. The state's deer herd is getting 
bigger each year, and chances are bet- 
ter for a hunter to get his game. 

"Overall, the deer population is in- 
creasing gradually, and so the number 
of deer killed also increases," said 
Hubert Handy, coordinator of game 
management for the Game and Fish 
Commission. "We should have a better 
season than last year," he said. 

Deer season is about a week later in 
opening this year than it has been in the 


It's a chore to get your buck out of the woods, hut have you ever heard anyone complain about it? These hunters don't mind 
the task a bit. 

V, • - 

> *» *• •'»• 

past. The reason for this is that Com- 
mission experts believe the later open- 
ing will allow the season to better 
coincide with the rutting, or mating sea- 
son of deer. This should increase the 
crop of deer produced next spring. 

Additionally, deer hunting is usually 
better during the rut, since bucks be- 
come more aggressive and less cautious 
when seeking a mate. And visibility in 
the woods is better later when more 
leaves fall off the trees. All this is ad- 
vantageous to the hunter. 

So this year, most sections of the 
state will herald in the deer season on 
Nov. 5. In northern and middle sec- 
tions, the season will continue through 
Nov. 28. In southwest Georgia, the 
season will remain open through Jan. 
5. Coastal counties, in southeast Geor- 
gia, will be the first to open with the 
dates of the season there running from 
Oct. 29 through Jan. 5. 

As usual, the William Tells will have 
their season first with the bow and ar- 
row clan taking to the woods in search 
for a deer from Oct. 1 through Oct. 29 
in all counties that are open for the gun 

Complete details on seasons and open 
:ounties can be found in the Sports- 
nan's Calendar, just inside the back 
:over of this magazine. 

In outlining deer populations in var- 
ous areas of the state, and pinpointing 
notspots for the coming season. Handy 
aid the Piedmont or Central Section of 
jeorgia has probably the largest deer 

"Putnam, Jones, Morgan, Jasper, 
vlonroe. McDuffie and Greene coun- 
ies have the largest deer herd in the 
tate and there should be very fine hunt- 
ng in that area," said Handy. Because 
>f the large deer crop, one day of either- 
ex hunting will be allowed on the final 
lay of the season in Jasper, Jones, Mon- 
oe, Putnam and McDuffie counties. 

Another area that is expected to pro- 
uce good hunting is around Columbus 
-Stewart, Chattahoochee, Muscogee and 
larion counties. 

Directly across the state from Colum- 
us to the east, the area around Augusta 
nd Clark Hill Reservoir will yield good 
oort for deer hunters. 

"There is a good deer herd all up 
nd down the Savannah River," said 
landy. "If we could eliminate all the 
ild dogs that chase deer in that area, 
i e could have a lot better herd here." 
Bulloch, Screven and Jenkins coun- 
es should be among the best counties 

The youngsters get 
into the act too, 
like 14-year-old 
David Pettigrew of 
Forsyth in Monroe 
County. Each year, 
more and more 
youngsters as well as 
adult hunters try their 
hand at hunting deer 
—and a good number 
of them get their 

in that area. Also, in the Fort Stewart 
area, game is plentiful. 

Coastal counties will also put veni- 
son on a lot of hunters' dinner tables. 

National Forest lands in the moun- 
tains of north Georgia which are open 
to public hunting during the open deer 
season, will account for their share of 
deer kills by Peach State sportsmen. 
Lumpkin, White, Towns, Union and Ra- 
bun counties all should produce very 
fine hunting. 

Deer hunting should rate at least 
fair in northwest Georgia, said Handy. 
"You can't say it will be 'good,' but it 
will be at least fair. The herd there is 
not as large as in northeast Georgia." 

The only section of the state showing 
a decline in its deer population is the 
southwest corner, according to Handy, 
apparently because of over hunting in 
some sections. Because of a slightly 
lower population, southwest Georgia will 
likely produce less deer to hunters this 

Management areas will also continue 
their trend over recent years to provide 
better and better hunting. 

Adding to the excitement and at- 
mosphere of the hunt is the deer 
camp. Such camps spring up all over 
Georgia when the season opens. More 
than 100,000 Georgians hunte 
hist year, and even mon i ted • 

this season. 
















!*•">• ' ' 

|r *| 



Still Hunting? 


% * J 


V* *i 


No matter how you hunt you can 
get your deer if you remember to 

"eep your eye on the 
deer trails 

By Richard W. Whittington 

The native range of the whitetail deer 
is the largest of any single big game 
species in the United States. Its popu- 
larity to hunters nationwide can be at- 
tributed to this fact. Certainly you could 
say it is the most popular big game ani- 
mal in Georgia. Of all the game animals 
in this state, the whitetail deer is spread- 
ing at the fastest rate. They are sim- 
ply popping up in places that have had 
no deer since the late 1 800's. Changing 
land use has created excellent deer 
range and has greatly accelerated the 
rate of spread. Total coverage of the 
state by our deer herd is possible with- 
in the next decade. 

Whitetail hunting takes on a variety 

*'i i. ) 



Some unsuccessful deer hunt- 
ers say that deer hunting is 90 
per cent luck, five per cent 
picking the right location, and 
five per cent being able to hit 
your target. 

However, deer hunting statis- 
tics show that normally, only 
10 per cent of the hunters bag 
100 per cent of the deer year 
after year. Why? 

The deer are there. While 
deer hunting may not be a bona 
fide mystery, an understanding 
of the techniques and "tricks" 
is just about essential to a 
successful hunt. 

Dick Whittington, supervisor 
of game management in the 
Game and Fish Commission's 
middle Georgia region office at 
Fort Valley, is a man who knows 
deer and how to hunt them. 
He has seldom failed to bag 
his limit hunting in both Geor- 
gia and South Carolina with 
bow and arrow, shotgun, and 
rifle. During the past season, 
he bagged two bucks in 15 
minutes. He spends a great 
deal of his time in the deer 
woods throughout the year in 
his duties as a game biologist. 
In this article, he passes on 
some good advice to other 
Georgia sportsmen. 




)f forms which are largely determined 
>y the type of terrain, local customs and 
egulations. Mountain and Piedmont sec- 
ions of Georgia are usually still-hunted 
vhile the Coastal Plains are still-hunted 
nd drive-hunted with and without dogs, 
loth methods have their merit, hut still- 
lunting is growing in popularity even in 
he traditional dog-hunting sections. 

Knowledge of the country is valuable 
i determining where and how to hunt 
n area effectively and is equally im- 
ortant to prevent becoming lost. Pre- 
, unt scouting trips give the hunter an 
dvantage in knowing the general di- 
ection of deer movements to and from 
seding areas and the exact areas which 

are being used heavily. Deer will use 
the same feeding area day after day, 
but they will seldom bed in the same 
spot on consecutive days. 

Some fundamental knowledge of deer 
habits is important in tracing their 
movements. In addition to feeding at 
night, deer feed mostly in early morning 
and late evening. They eat a variety of 
leaves, twigs, shrubs, weeds and fruits. 
An especially tasty fruit is acorns from 
almost any species of oak. A heavy 
acorn crop will concentrate deer and 
provide some excellent hunting. 

Feeding movements are apt to begin 
at daybreak and end by mid-morning 
and then start again a short time before 

dark. It is good strategy to do a con- 
siderable amount of sitting and watch- 
ing a feeding area during these two 
periods. Any trails leading to the feeding 
area should be located and considera- 
tion given to the wind direction before 
choosing a stand since these trails will 
be used by deer coming to the feeding 
area in most cases. Tree stands are very 
effective, but not essential. This type of 
hunting is called still-hunting. 

Another productive method of hunt- 
ing is tc sit on a trail or at the junction 
of two or more trails and intercept the 
deer moving to or from feeding or bed- 
ding areas. The area to sit should be 
open enough to shoot without interfer- 

ence since the deer will probably be 
moving at a steady walk. Always check 
the wind and be careful not to step in 
the trail the deer will travel. Human 
scent will remain for several hours un- 
der dry conditions and considerably 
longer if the ground and vegetation are 
wet. Deer have a very keen sense of 
smell and will spook quite easily at hu- 
man scent. 

Stalking deer is a form of still-hunt- 
ing since the hunter is motionless a 
great deal of the time. Sneaking along 
the edges of creek bottoms and hollows, 
always walking into the wind, and stand- 
ing still frequently to look and listen 
will often reveal a deer that is unaware 
of your presence. Continuous walking 
produces noise that is not natural and 
will spook most deer before the hunter 
is ready for a shot. Stalking is best in 
fairly dense cover since the hunter 
would be detected quite easily walking 
in the open. 

Drive-hunts are conducted by hunters 
walking through large areas of dense 
cover which deer normally bed or feed. 
The object is for the "drivers" to flush 
the deer into sight of the "standers." The 
standers should be positioned on fire- 
breaks, deer trails, logging roads or in 
natural openings which will give them 
the clearest view of any approaching 
deer. The drivers should be in a long 
line across the area to be driven with the 
hunters on each end of the line slightly 
ahead of the others in order to detect 
any deer trying to sneak around the 

edge of the line. Drivers or standers 
should be a safe distance from the 
hunter on either side. 

Both noisy and quiet drives are used. 
A noisy drive tends to stir up deer and 
often the standers get only running 
shots. The quiet drive tends to move 
deer to the standers slowly so that a 
walking or standing shot is presented. 
The drive should move downwind if 
possible to prevent the deer from scent- 
ing the standers. 

Dog-hunting for whitetails where 
legally allowed in South Georgia is pop- 
ular in sections with very dense cover. 
A hunt may be conducted in much the 
same manner as a drive-hunt with the 
exception that dogs are used for driving 
the deer. In some instances small areas 
are completely surrounded by stand- 
ers. Positioning of the hunters on each 
existing deer trail is important since 
many deer will use them as escape 

Another method of dog-hunting wide- 
ly accepted is using natural barriers 
such as lakes or streams to guide the 
chased deer through a line of stand- 
ers. These barriers tend to turn the 
deer in the desired direction; however, 
hard pressed deer will frequently swim 
to elude the dogs. 

Weather conditions determine, to a 
great extent, the amount of movement 
by deer during the daylight hours. Deer 
feed heavily immediately before a cold 
front regardless of the time of day. An- 
other peak period of movement is fol- 

Deer hunting with a bow and arrow is becoming increasingly popular in Georgia. Last 
year, more than 8,000 archers hunted deer of both sexes during October. 

lowing rain. With either of these con- 
ditions prevailing, the hunter should re- 
main on his stand or continue stalking 
through the entire day. Weather condi- 
tions are not nearly so critical in drive 

In extremely cold weather, deer will 
frequently seek sheltered areas from the 
wind. The south side of slopes or moun- 
tains are good bets to find deer sunning 
themselves during the middle of the 
day. Contrary to popular belief, deer 
get cold and seek the sunny areas for 
warmth. Movement is high throughout 
the day in this type weather. 

Choosing the weapon for hunting 
whitetails is a matter of personal pref- 
erence. Weapons commonly used are 
bow and arrow, rifle and shotgun. Any 
of these are adequate providing the 
hunter knows the limitations of the par- 
ticular weapon. The effectiveness of the 
bow and arrow is determined by the 
position of the hit and the ability of 
the hunter to trail the deer. Any legal 
bow. which must have a pull of more 
than 40 pounds, that is properly used 
will do very well on white tails. 

The shotgun with buckshot has a 
large limitation which is badly abused 
by hunters. Unfortunately, few people 
realize how close deer must be for buck- 
shot to kill effectively. The range at 
which a particular gun will consistently 
put five pellets on a deer size target is 
the effective range of the gun. The shot- 
gun with rifled slugs is a very good 
killer at much greater ranges than with 

Any legal caliber rifle will effectively 
kill deer provided the shot is placed 
correctly. Any shot from the last rib 
forward to the head should do the job 
unless the deer is only "nicked." Neck 
and head shots are spectacular killers, 
but they will frequently ruin a trophy 
head for mounting. If the hunter is not 
sure of himself, he should aim for the 
ribs or shoulder and squeeze off the 

Needless to say. it's a good safety idea 
to wear a red, yellow or orange hat or 
coat while deer hunting. Be sure you 
have clearly identified your target be- 
fore pulling the trigger. Don't make 
"sound" shots. 

The identification of a legally ant- 
lered buck is very important to the 
hunter. In many instances a deer may 
be identified as a doe unless it has a 
large rack. The use of binoculars or a 
scope will aid the hunter in inspecting 
each deer closely. A large group of deer 
will usually be does and fawns. Any 
dec-r following the group at a distance 
could be a buck trailing one of the 
group. The hunter should be suspicious 
oi any deer traveling alone. This may 
be the trophy buck he has waited a 
lifetime for. 

A big bass, all green and white and 
black, whacking a stout fishing pole silly 
... in October? . . . just doesn't ring 
true. October is for birds on wing, puffs 
of shotgun smoke, and the solid belt in 
the shoulder of Mr. 12 gauge. 

And then November ... a saltwater 
living fish called a trout, pulling with 
autumn vigor against the baited line he 
so foolishly fell for . . . again, it doesn't 
seem quite right. November blurts in 
with deer ghosting through trees and a 
thousand human eyes looking for the 
prize rack. 

The gist of this little calendar game 
is to point out a fishy fact. Fishing is 
great in Georgia in the fall! In fact 
sometimes better than that wonderful 
spring fishing. 

Game and Fish Commission creel 
reports show that many times, fall an- 
glers pull in more fish than spring an- 
glers. Probably the same people, though. 
If a guy is going to pull them in like 
crazy in the spring, he will probably 
give a repeat performance in the fall. 
Or will he? Rip the August page off 
the calendar and many fishing rods 
are stashed and whole bevies of guns 
are dug out of storage. Fishing follows 
the migrating birds. 

Not all outdoorsmen are so speedy 
about storing the tackle box. They 
linger on. Some handily combine morn- 
ing fishing and afternoon shooting. A 
day of dove shooting and fishing, any- 
one? Or they will utilize the lulls in 
fishing to whack a few birds with buck- 

is for 

This is also the happy season for 
some of the seasoned anglers. They like 
to see hunting season come — just to 
thin the ranks of fish catchers. Water 
skiers also dwindle away. "Tough 

Fishing is good in the fall for the sim- 
ple fact that the fish start hitting again. 
Why? Water temperature. It cools, nat- 
urally. And as the water temperature 
slides down the Farenheit scale, fish 
shake their summer sluggishness, and 
start feeding with vigor. 

Need proof? In the large lakes, bass 
fishing is par excellence in late October, 


don't overlook 

the excellent fishing 

available in 


November, and the first part of Decem- 
ber. Allatoona creel records show Oc- 
tober is the high bass month for the en- 
tire year. Rubbing shoulders with both 
South Carolina and Georgia, Clark Hill 
Reservoir has crappic fishing at its best 
in November. It's this way for most 
waters throughout the state. Usually one 
or more popular fish is the bitingest in 
the fall. 

Not to be left out of this excellent 
autumn fishing, Georgia streams and 
rivers make good showings. Mountain 
streams flow low and clear and fish 
congregate in pools. Trouters get an 
added treat this year. In the past, 
streams have closed on Sept. 15. This 
year closing is scheduled for Oct. 15, 
a whole month's reprieve. 

Down south, in the Suwannee, fall 
fishing might even be a shade better 
than spring angling. The Alapaha River 
lowers and clears, and chain pickeral 
(or jack) fishing is tops. 

Coastal fishing has its fall champions. 
Where only a few large channel bass 
are caught during the warmer months, 
the bigger channel bass move inshore 
and concentrate off the beaches and in 
the mouths of inlets, during October 
and November. And that old phoney 
trout, the speckled sea trout, which is 
really a weakfish. finds his way to more 
creels, stringers, or ice boxes, during the 
fall season. 

Now. suggestions are as plentiful as 
fleas on a mangy mutt. But remember. 
Fall is for hunting — yet, fishing is great, 

n ;..,tssfc *3&m s*sari 


There arc plenty of fish to go around in 

the autumn, with less competition on the 

enters. You're sure to get more and bigger 

fish than you did during hot weather. 

by Jim Tyler 

You'll find action aplenty, hut don't 

expect to land them all. The big ones start 

hitting when the weather begins to cool 

down and whet the appetites of all fish. 



iSki v 

Photo Credit : Hubert Handy 

Deer stocking was an important factor in getting Georgia's deer herd on the road to return. 
Now, deer are found in all of Georgia's 159 counties, with a hunting season in 85 counties. 

a crop 
to be 

More deer for 
Geor: ians through 
better . 3gement 

By Jim Tyler 

Picture 100,000 deer feasting hungrily 
throughout the forests of Georgia. Each 
year a new crop of fawns raises the 
number by 30,000. Deer, deer and more 
deer. This sounds great to the hunter. 
And if this were all there was to it, it 
would be great — we would have an 
abundance of deer. But wait a minute. 

Actually Georgia does have about 
100,000 deer within its borders. Good 
healthy de_'r. Yet this great number of 
deer needs plenty of food to be healthy, 
to function properly, and to reproduce. 
This is one of the catches of a big deer 
herd. Food. Good nutritious food. Deer 
have to be managed so there are not too 
many for the available food supply. 

To do this, to keep a balance be- 
tween deer and food, crowded deer can 
sometimes be moved to different areas 
where food is plentiful. Or they can be 
harvested by hunting. 

Let's go back a bit. In the late 1800's 
Georgia didn't have to worry a whit 
about too many deer in certain areas. 
There weren't any wild deer in north 
Georgia. In south Georgia, deer were 
found on the coastal islands and a few 
were scattered throughout the planta- 
tion lands, but hunting was almost nil. 

People for years had taken deer with 
no limits, no seasons, no nothing. They 
literally exterminated the deer popula- 
tion. North Georgia was, therefore, de- 
void of deer by the late 1890's. In fact, 
the last known north Georgia deer of 
this era was run down and killed by 
dogs in 1895 in Fannin County. Prob- 
ably some deer were present, but in 
scant numbers. 

In 1928. a deer stocking program was 
initiated by the U.S. Forest Service. 
Deer were moved from Pisgah National 
Forest in North Carolina to north Geor- 
gia. With this start, deer were again in 
north Georgia. 

In the next three years the State 
Game and Fish Commission trans- 
planted another 100 deer and the For- 
est Service brought in about 50 more. 
As this small number multiplied, sev- 
eral were trapped and moved to other 
suitable areas throughout the state. The 
first legal deer hunt from this scanty 
beginning was in 1940. The whitetails 
were back. 

But Hubert Handy, coordinator of 
game management for the State Game 
and Fish Commission, says "a problem 
shows up with a deer population that 

Wildlife rangers play one of the most 

important roles in deer management. 

Control of illegal hunting and free running 

dogs are two of the biggest current 

problems in Georgia deer management. 

Food patches on game management areas 

are just one of many techniques used to 

increase the deer and turkey population. 

Control of the harvest by hunters is 

the most important. 

Carefully watched-over management areas 

not only provide excellent hunting, they 

also helped to form a nucleus for the big 

rebuilding job across the state. 

isn't managed. It never gets off the 
ground when hounded by poachers and 
dogs. It just stays about so, never really 
getting any larger. Deer have to be 

To combat this, the Commission be- 
gan establishing wildlife management 
areas in 1938. The original idea behind 
the areas was that they would provide 
a center point where deer could be 
watched over and dogs kept out. The 
deer would flourish and spread out. The 
idea didn't pan out. Outside the pro- 
tected areas, dogs slaughtered them. 

Deer just can't shake dogs from their 
trail unless they can get in water to 
lose their trail of scent. In hilly or 
mountain areas, a deer will keep cir- 
cling a mountain on the same contour 
until he is finally exhausted and at the 
mercy of dogs. Dogs give no mercy. 

Because the deer were not spreading 
out to any great extent, the Commission 
continued trapping deer from areas that 
contained too many deer for the avail- 
able food and moving them to areas of 
abundant food. Catching a live deer is 
done by one of two ways. They can be 
lured into wooden traps baited with 
corn or salt, or they can be shot with 
a dart gun containing a tranquilizer that 
stuns them. Over 600 captured deer 
have been transplanted. But it is a 
slow and expensive way. 

It wasn't until 1959 that the statewide 

deer population was given a solid shot 
in the arm which took it, as Handy 
said, above the level where it just stayed 
about the same to its present level of 
about 100,000 deer. From 1959 to 
1961, 1,000 deer were brought in from 
Texas and Wisconsin. With this big 
boost, stocked in areas of good deer 
habitat with no or few deer, Georgia's 
deer population was on its way. 

Establishing out-of-state deer and re- 
stocking Georgia deer have done much 
to establish the deer population. It's a 
matter of putting the deer where the 
food is. No matter how you look at it, 
a certain amount of deer food will only 
support a certain amount of deer. 

When the deer are stocked in areas 
of abundant food they still have to be 
watched. The critter will sometimes eat 
himself out of house and home. The 
population has to be kept at a level 
consistent with the amount of food the 
area will grow. 

It is important, therefore, to keep the 
number of deer at a certain level. If the 
Commission doesn't do it by regulated 
hunting, nature will harvest in her own 
way. Disease and starvation enter the 

Deer management by the Commission 
is a delicate business. Good scientific 
management, that is. 

But that is what managers are for— to 
manage. And when something unusual 
does appear, research is initiated to see 
how serious the situation is. For exam- 
ple, some cattlemen once thought deer 
carried anaplasmosis, a blood disease 
fatal to young cattle. They don't. But 
it had to be scientifically proven. 

Game and Fish rangers play a vital 
role in the deer management picture. 
Law enforcement, control of free rang- 
ing dogs, and putting the grips on night 
slaughter of deer by poachers using spot 
lights are all significant factors that 
have caused the deer herd to spiral up- 

Without planning as such, another 
event has favored the deer. The agricul- 
ture trend in Georgia has changed rap- 
idly in recent years. Farm crops are 
being replaced by forest stands. Over 
200,000 acres are converted yearly into 
forest areas. This helps the deer — and 
the hunter. 

Deer hunting will continue to in- 
crease in magnitude and the Commis- 
sion hopes to see the near future usher 
in regulations that will open everv 
county in the state for deer hunting. 

In a way. then, the deer is a crop. 
And just like a crop of corn, it has to 
he looked alter and managed. Deer 
managers, your State Game and Fixh 
Commission, will probably not be able 
to produce more deer to the acre in the 
future, but will have more acres to 
work with. The harvesters of this big- 
ger crop? The hunter. 

Judge Harley Langdale of Valdosta, 
chairman of the State Game and Fish 
Commission, can be described as a leg- 
endary figure in his own lifetime. 

Born on the edge of the Okefenokee 
Swamp near the Georgia-Florida line, 
Judge Langdale's early years were spent 
in the woods with his father, a turpen- 
tine farmer who killed bears and wild- 
cats in the swamp by the score, and 
who fed his family on wild turkey, 
venison, and wild honey. 

From the time the judge was 10 years 
old, he dipped turpentine from his 
father's pines, cutting cypress crossties 
in the depths of the swamp during the 
winter, when turpentine trees are dorm- 

Leaving the woods behind, he ob- 
tained his law degree from Mercer Uni- 
versity and began practicing law in 
Valdosta, where he was soon elected 
judge of the city recorder's court. He 
began investing every dollar he earned 
or could borrow to buy pine timberland, 
then sellinc for as low as dol'ar an acre. 

Soon, he had built up a woods empire 
that now totals more than 175,000 acres 
in 1 1 Georgia counties and two counties 
in Florida, which also includes exten- 
sive farming operations. 

Now one of the wealthiest men in 
Georgia. Judge Langdale has used his 
money and his influence to help his fel- 
low men. Many a struggling South 
Georgia youngster has completed his 
college education with the judge's un- 
publicized help. One of his favorite 
projects is the Valdosta-Lowndes County 
Hospital Authority. As chairman, the 
judge attends every meeting faithfully. 

President of the American Turpen- 
tine Farmers Association from its 
founding until recently. Judge Lang- 
dale played an important role in obtain- 
ing government stabilization of the tur- 
pentine industry, bringing prosperity to 
thousands of turpentine growers and 
their employees all over the United 

Judge Langdale has always believed 
in hard work, and made no exceptions 

The Langdale Company's operations at Valdosta are centered around a 250 acre plant 
where 50,000 barrels of gum turpentine are processed a year, along with 100 million 
board feet of lumber from a sawmill and wood processing plant. 

Quail hunting is Judge Langdale's favorite 
pastime, along with watching his 
dogs work. 

for his three sons, all of whom were 
sent to work in the turpentine woods at 
the age of ten. just as their father was. 

The judge believes that hard work 
and plenty of hunting and fishing is the 
secret to preventing juvenile delinquen- 
cy. Even when he was deeply in debt, 
he saw that his sons always had access 
to fishing tackle, shotguns, and shells. 
Lo this day. they are all avid hunters 
and fishermen, just as their father is. 

The judge's favorite recreation is 
quail hunting, in a style that can be 
seen only in a few places in the world, 
mostly in the plantation area of South- 
west Georgia, the "Quail Capitol of the 
World."' During the quail season, the 
judge hunts his 20,000 acre private 
shooting grounds every day of the week. 
unless pressing business keeps him 

Of his 20.000 acres of hunting land. 
Judge Langdale practices his most in- 
tensive quail management on about 
10.000 acres, including some 5.000 
acres at "Kinderlou" in Lowndes 
County, hunted only by the judge and 
guests who never forget the experience. 



by Jim Morrison 

Judge Lonsdale's Valdosta office 
reflects his life-long devotion to 
hunting and fishing, which he has 
never neglected while building a 
multi-million dollar turpentine, 
timber business, said to use 
everything about a pine tree 
"except the shadow it casts on 
the ground." 

Judge Langdale is one of Georgia's 
leading advocates of controlled burning 
for quail in mature pines. Divided into 
squares by fire lanes, his land is burned 
in checkerboard fashion every two 
years, insuring that quail can escape 
to a nearby unburned block while pro- 
viding a diversity of habitat. In addi- 
tion to burning, the judge has planted 
more than 100 food patches of mixed 
quail foods throughout the area, which 
concentrates the birds for easier hunt- 
ing along the firebreak roads, many of 
which are seeded to bicolor lespediza. 
In areas where light cattle grazing is 
permitted, food patches are fenced in. 

Hunters from less fortunate areas 
are amazed that the Judge hunts only 
coveys, never single birds. He never al- 
lows more than four birds to be shot 
in the same covey, and feels that hunt- 
ing is poor if his dogs don't find more 
than one covey every 15 minutes. On a 
recent visit to "Kinderlou" by Field & 
Stream humorist Corey Ford, the day's 
hunt produced 21 coveys in five hours 
of hunting. Judge Langdale and his 

longtime dog trainer, Crawford Corbett, 
could hardly find words to express their 
disappointment. "Worst hunting we ever 
had." said the judge. "I don't know 
what's wrong. We always get a covey 
out of that patch." 

Over the past half century, the judge 
has worn out three 1 6-gauge Winchester 

Formerly a great horseman, the judge at 
the age of 78 now prefers to drive 
himself around at the wheel of his Ford, 
watching the pine trees and quail grow. 

The judge docs his quail hunting from a 

specially designed cart which is also a 

mobile dog pen capable of holding as 

many as a dozen pointers at a time. 

pumps, and recentl\ bought a 1 2-gauge 
Winchester automatic with a fiberglass 
barrel In addition to quail hunting, he 
is an avid dove and deer hunter, and 
enjoys duck shooting. 

The judge's deer hunting is restricted 
primarily to a timbered 30.000 acre 
tract near the Okefenokee Swamp, 
which also has a few turkeys, but not 
as many as the judge would like. 

Judge Langdale is a bird dog lover of 
the first order. He owns at least 15 or 
16 pointers at any given moment, along 
with a setter or two, carefully and lov- 
ingly trained by Mr. Corbett, who has 
served as the judge's fulltime dog train- 
er for more than 1 2 years. 

Watching the dogs work is the judge's 

greatest joy, and he takes a personal in- 
terest in the performance of each dog, 
calling him by name and recalling his 
most unusual covey points. 

Since his appointment to the State 
Game and Fish Commission from the 
Eighth Congressional District by former 
Governor Ernest Vandiver in January 
of 1961 for a seven-year term. Judge 
Langdale has taken an active role in 
the protection and development of 
Georgia's wildlife resources throughout 
the entire state. He is a staunch believer 
in the importance of law enforcement 
and public education in protecting wild- 
life from poaching, out of season hunt- 
ing, and over shooting. He especially 
detests quail trapping and alligator 
poaching, along with the use of illegal 
fish baskets in rivers and streams. He 
knows all of the wildlife rangers in his 
district personally, and follows their ac- 
tivities closely. 

In addition to demonstrating the im- 
portance of sound biological principles 
in managing game and fish on his own 
personal hunting and fishing areas, the 
Judge leases some 60,000 acres of tim- 
berland free of charge to the State in 
the Suwanoochee Game Management 
Area, the largest public hunting area in 

Judge Langdale threw his great per- 
sonal influence in full support of the 
recent increase in the hunting and fish- 
ing license fees to provide more funds 
for wildlife conservation. In addition 
to wildlife, the judge has always prac- 
ticed and advocated soil, water, and 
forest conservation, and has received 
many honors for his conservation activi- 
ties, culminated by his selection 
"Conservationist of the Year" by die 
Cieorgia Sportsmen's Federation in 
I 964. and his election as chairman of 
the State Game and Fish Commission 
in 1966. 

l I 

Landlocked striped bass like those that 

grow up to 55 pounds in South Carolina's 

Santee-Cooper reservoirs may soon be a 

reality in Georgia lakes, thanks to the 

increase in the price of hunting and 

fishing license fees. 




by Jim Morrison 

the story of the hunting and fishing license increase 

It's a hot, still day on your favorite 
reservoir in midsummer. 

Things have been pretty slow on the 
lake, like they always are in late July 
and August. Bass aren't biting, and the 
crappie have gone deep. 

About the only action you hope for 
is to spot a school of white bass, while 
several small white birds fly lazily over 
your head under the blazing sun. Sud- 
denly, they dive toward the surface of 
the lake. The realization hits you that 
fish, big fish, are tearing the calm water 
apart! A long slim form leaps clear of 
the water, diving back with a thrashing 
motion that sends a white spray cascad- 
ing behind a glimpse of an unusually 
wide tailfin disappearing into the water. 

With a quick yank of the starter rope 
and a frantic burst of speed, you gun 
your motor in time to see other sliver 
shapes, dler in size, urgently leaping 
from the followed by more large 

silver torpc 

Casting >t silver spoon into the 
middle of the lurmoil, something big 
and brawny inhales your lure and heads 
for the other side of the lake, while the 
drag on your reel whines furiously! 

It's a long hard struggle. He won't 
be "horsed" in, and running under the 

boat a few times sets your heart pound- 
ing with the thought of losing the 
trophy fish of your life. 

Finally, a long, dark shape with flar- 
ing fins is brought near the boat, the 
net dips behind him, and you are look- 
ing at your first landlocked Georgia 
striped bass! 

Sound impossible? Not if the plans 
of the State Game and Fish Commis- 
sion made possible by this year's in- 
crease in the cost of fishing licenses 
work out. Striped bass fishing and many 
other surprises for Georgia's fishermen 
are in Santa's sack, ready to be deliv- 
ered during the next few years. 

Just like any program of far reaching 
consequence, many of the improvements 
Georgia fishermen will be seeing for 
their extra license dollar will take time 
to produce, but progress is underway 
or on the drawing board in many areas. 

The saltwater striped bass stocking 
program is one of the more popular 
projects that Georgia fishermen are 
rooting for. Biologists of the Game and 
Fish Commission are hard at work now 
on developing successful techniques for 
economically raising sub-adult ' size 
striped bass for stocking in large Geor- 
gia reservoirs. 


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Trout stocked in Lake Lanier less than 
three years ago have already reached 
more than seven pounds in size. 
Expansion of the program will allow more 
trout stocking in coldwater lakes. 


Encouraged by the spectacular suc- 
cess of rainbow trout stocking in Lake 
Lanier even without natural reproduc- 
tion, fisheries men believe that good 
striper fishing probably can be main- 
tained in any large reservoir that has 
a heavy population of gizzard shad as 
food fish, provided the stripers can be 
raised in hatcheries in large enough 
numbers at a low enough cost. 

Lakes which may one day feature 
striped bass fishing if the project is 
successful include Seminole, Black- 
shear, Worth, Walter F. George, Sin- 
clair, Clark Hill, and Hartwell. Natural 
spawning of striped bass might be pos- 
sible in Lake Seminole and Blackshear, 
but proposed dams on tributary spawn- 
ing streams may doom the self-sustain- 
ing population possibility, making peri- 
odic restocking necessary to maintain 
striper fishing. 

Another study will soon be under- 
way to determine what can be done 
about increasing spawning runs of 
striped bass up the coastal plains rivers 
from the ocean, especially in the Sa- 
vannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, Satilla, 
and St. Mary's rivers. Research may 
indicate the possibility of stocking 
hatchery striped bass in these streams 
to enter the ocean and later return to 
spawn and be caught by fishermen, par- 
ticularly in areas where pollution has 
almost wiped out reproduction. 

Other new species of fish being 
groomed for stocking introductions in- 
clude the northern smallmouth bass, 
which may be the answer for many 
north Georgia streams, especially in 
northwest Georgia, that are too cold for 
largemouth bass and too warm for 

For fast-flowing middle Georgia 
streams on the fall line with extensive 
shoal areas. Commission fish biologists 
are studying introduction of the Flint 

River coosae bass, which is similar in 
size and appearance to the northern 
smallmouth. These fish commonly grow 
to five and six pounds in size, and re- 
produce in greater numbers than large- 
mouth bass in streams. These fish may 
eventually be stocked in the Ocmulgee, 
Oconee, Alcovy, Towaliga, Broad, Ogee- 
chee, and Little rivers, provided that re- 
search projects on these streams show 
their desirability. 

Present efforts to establish walleye 
in the large northern reservoirs will be 
concentrated on Lake Allatoona, Nott- 
ely, and the new Carter's Dam reser- 
voir, along with possible stockings fur- 
ther south. 

How will it be possible to stock these 
new fish as a result of the fishing license 
increase? All of these programs depend 
on new research that must be conducted 
by increased technical personnel, but 
one of the most fundamental needs 
for such a program is improvement of 
one of the most useful and one of the 
most misunderstood tools of a fisheries 
biologist — the fish hatchery. 

Although Georgia presently has eight 
fish hatcheries in all areas of the State, 
most of them were built more than 20 
years ago when little was known about 
modern standards of hatchery construc- 
tion. Because of the shortage of money 
in the Game and Fish Commission in 
recent years, little has been done to 
modernize most of these hatcheries since 
they were built. Now, with license in- 
crease money, the efficiency of these 
hatcheries to produce fish for experi- 
mental stocking programs such as 
striped bass will be greatly increased 
by construction renovation. 

The specific things to be done to 
hatcheries to achieve these goals don't 
sound very exciting, but they are fun- 
damental needs which can't be ignored 
any longer. Examples include dams built 

by mule-drawn implements that don't 
hold water, and ponds that are almost 
impossible to drain and safely remove 
fish from them. The answer is construc- 
tion of a concrete catch basin around the 
pond drain where fish in a drained 
pond can be easily seined up without 
muddying the water to such an extent 
that it kills small, immature fingerling 

Largemouth bass, bream, and chan- 
nel catfish for new or renovated private 
pond stocking at a lower cost to the 
state will continue to be necessary, 
and more efficient hatcheries will fill 
the need. 

One possible use of such hatchery 
pond space is rearing of threadfin shad, 
a small warmwater food fish, for stock- 
ing in north Georgia reservoirs too cold 
for the shad to survive in the winter. 
Brood fish stocked every spring would 
spawn heavily in lakes such as Burton, 
producing a tremendous food supply 
for trout, bass, and other species during 
the warm part of the year, which will 
then be eaten by the thousands as they 
die during cold weather that winter. 

Hatchery ponds are needed for all 
the experimental stocking programs of 
the department where it is desirable to 
stock a slightly larger fingerling fish, 
especially walleye, smallmouth bass, 
Flint River bass, and striped bass. 

Hatcheries scheduled for renovation 
during the next two years include Wal- 
ton near Covington, Richmond Hill 
near Savannah, Bowen's Mill near Fitz- 
gerald, Dawson, Cordele, and Summer- 

In the north Georgia trout areas, 
greater efforts will be made to increase 
the production of native stream-raised 
trout, rather than use of hatchery 
stocked trout. In some streams, dams 
will be built blocking the upstream mi- 
Con tinned on Page 16 

where your money's going 

This "launching area" on Lake Tugalo 
near Clayton is typical of the poor access 
for fishermen to many of the state's 
finest fishing waters. 

Under the license increase program, 

oncrete launching ramps will he built on 

more than 32 major Georgia rivers and 

lakes which presently have no such 



With hundreds of calibers to choose 
from, it's no wonder that hunters se- 
lecting their first deer rifle manage to 
be pretty confused. 

Whether you've never hunted deer 
before, or you're an oldtimer that has 
decided it's time to turn Old Betsy out 
to pasture and invest in some firepower 
of the newer models, there's a big de- 
cision ahead of you. 

There's no such thing as the perfect 
rifle for everyone. Each cartridge is 
made for a specific job. You could get 
10 deer hunters together, and you'd 
probably get 10 answers on which cali- 
ber is best. Which one is rig!;t? In all 
likelihood, each one is right. They have 
selected the caliber that best performs 
what is expected of the cartridge for the 
man doing the trigger pulling. 

Unless you're one of the blessed few 
who can afford a rackful of rifles, you're 
most likely looking for the one weapon 
that will serve well any purpose for 
which you plan to use a high-powered 

So the first thing to consider in buy- 
ing a rifle, is determining the use to 
which it will be put. We're assuming 
that you are looking for a gun to be 
used entirely — or nearly so — on deer 
hunting, and that your hunting will be 
for the most part limited to Georgia. 

Once we've gotten this established, 
that narrows the field considerably. Ob- 
viously, your shooting will be at rather 
close range. Most of your shots will 
be through brush or timber. What you 
need then is a caliber that is heavy 
enough to be able to fight its way 
through the brush and still be accurate 
and deadly up to perhaps 150 yards. 
Light bullets won't stay on line as well, 
once they hit a few small limbs. Nor do 
you need a light, high velocity cartridge 
that will drop only three inches in 250 

True, the heavier cartridge will travel 
much slower. This may seem that it 
would have less impact when it hits the 
deer. But a slower, heavier cartridge 
will not deflect as badly when it hits a 
few branches. Its weight still delivers 
shock power at lower speed, because of 
that weight. 

Generally speaking, a good Georgia 
deer cartridge should have a weight in 
the neighborhood of 100 to 180 grains, 
depending on the caliber. Heavier 
weight is unnecessary, unless you ex- 
pect to shoot through extremely heavy 
brush. If you go much lighter, the bul- 
lets may go astray at the first twig. It 
should be pointed out, however, that 
heavy, powerful cartridges don't make 
it possible to disregard brush. All bul- 
lets will be deflected some if they hit 
too many or too large twigs. 

A velocity of between 2500 and 3000 
feet per second on a bullet of 170 to 
180 grains is powerful enough to put 
down the biggest deer you'll ever see, 
as long as you've hit him in a vital spot. 
To get more velocity, you'd have to get 
a lighter bullet. Then again we'd be 
headed back toward the fast, light bul- 
let which would veer off target by tiny 
limbs more easily. 

Certain calibers are outlawed in 
Georgia for deer hunting. Perhaps you'll 
near someone tell how he's killed plenty 
3f deer with one of these calibers, and 
.ou'll wonder why they're not allowed. 
Sure, you can kill with them. But the 
xlds are heavily stacked against it. Un- 
ess your name is Davy Crockett, I 
wouldn't advise going bear hunting with 
i switch. 

The deadliness of a rifle is measured 
n neither the speed or weight or the 
•Lillet alone, but rather in the shock 
lower delivered by the combination of 
4ose two factors. A pedestrian hit by 

bicycle at 40 miles per hour might be 
urt worse than if he'd been hit by a 
0-ton truck doing only two miles per 
our. Yet if the truck is doing 30, and 

hit a man inside a car even, death 

ould be just about certain. Going 

milar speeds, the heavier vehicle is 
;rtainly more deadly. 

Now, let's get down to cases on which 
< ilibers are among the best choices, and 

which are not. For the conditions you'll 
find in Georgia, these calibers are ex- 
cellent: .30/06, .308, .35 Remington, 
7 mm, .280 and those of similar size. 

The .308, a cartridge born of recent 
military engagements, is a fine weapon. 
The .35 Remington is best when brush 
is extraordinarily heavy. In my opinion, 
the best all-around rifle for the man who 
wants to hunt all big game in Georgia, 
and has hopes of someday going out 
west where he may meet other condi- 
tions, would just have to be the .30/06. 

If you were doing all your shooting 
in the wide open spaces, you couldn't 
do much better for deer than a .270, but 
all that speed and flat trajectory won't 
help you too much in Georgia's forests. 

The .264 is much the same as the 
.270 in ballistics. When you get much 
below that, below the .25 caliber class, 
you've probably got a dandy little var- 
mint rifle, but it isn't a deer gun. 

The following calibers, because of 
their extra light weight, low velocity, 
and consequent low impact, are not 
legal for deer hunting in Georgia: .218 
Bee; .22 Hornet, .22 Jet, .221 Fireball, 
.25-20. .256 Hawkeye, .32-20, and the 
.30 Caliber M-l Army Carbine. 

This M-l Army Carbine has thrown 
a lot of people in Georgia for a loop. 
They've been offered a good price on 
this neat looking little rifle, and are told 
by some that it is legal. It is NOT! 

The confusion possibly is due to the 
fact that the so-called M-l Army 
RIFLE is legal. The difference? Quite a 
bit! The carbine cartridge is a short, 
low powered cartridge that resembles 
a .32 special pistol cartridge. The M-l 
rifle referred to here, actually is the 
very potent .30/06 cartridge. 

Legally, in Georgia, any cartridge of 
.22 caliber or more that is centerfire, 
with those rifles listed above excepted, 
may be used for deer. 

More confusion. People ask is the 
regular little .22 rifle legal? Answer: 
NO! It is rimfire. not centerfire. It has 
very, very low velocity, weight, and 

Another point on legalities: rifles 
which meet the requirements set forth 
may be used for deer in all parts of the 

By now, let us assume you've de- 
cided which caliber best suits your 
needs. What you need to decide next, is 
the style of action. Do you want a bolt, 
single shot. pump. lever or automatic? 

A single shot may uo the job, and be 
inexpensive. If you're convinced you're 
a good enough marksman that one shot 
is enough, take a single shot. Other- 
wise, rule out that choice. 

I personally frown on automatics be- 
cause, for one thing, a shooter is tempt- 
ed to snap off too many shots too quick, 
rather than to take careful aim. If you 

hit a deer several times, you've spoiled 
a lot of meat. Even then if you shoot 
quickly, you may leave him wounded 
with poorly placed shots and he'll get 

In recent years, some very fine pumps 
with box magazines have been built for 
big game rifles, and the results appear 
to be excellent. The fast reloading ac- 
tion of a pump, without taking the 
shooter's eye far off the target, makes it 
a potent weapon that produces a great 
deal of firepower. 

That leaves us with bolt and lever 
actions, the two most popular types for 
hunting rifles. The choice here is more 
personal than anything else. The bolt 
action is generally accepted as the 
strongest, most well made of all for 
rifles. Many large calibers can't be 
bought in lever action. In fact, there 
are relatively few calibers available in 
that style. If your choice comes in 
lever, well and good. Otherwise, you'd 
probably be smartest to choose a bolt 
action. The .30/30 is usually lever ac- 
tion, and the popular .308 comes in 
probably the widest variety of actions, 
including automatic, lever, bolt and if 
I'm not mistaken, there are even pumps 
made for it. 

Various types of actions in which favorite 
deer calibers may be found: from left, 
automatic, bolt, lever and pump. 


Continued from Page 13 
gration of rough fish, followed by the 
elimination of all trash fish in the 
stream above it and restocking only 
with trout. Dams to dig trout pools will 
be constructed, along with artificial 
spawning areas where erosion and silta- 
tion has ruined natural spawning. Cover 
will be planted along stream banks in 
the Chattahoochee National Forest to 
provide cooling shade and cover for 
trout, as well as stopping bank erosion. 

To help alleviate problems of finding 
a good place to fish in areas of the state 
without any large reservoirs or large 
streams and public lakes, such as north- 
west and southeast Georgia, several 
public fishing lakes will be built by the 
Game and Fish Commission in the next 
few years on locations which will be 
determined based on the local need. 

For many fishermen, the most sig- 
nificant result they will see from their 
license dollars in the next year will be 
the boat launching ramps being con- 
structed for fishermen on Georgia's fin- 
est fishing lakes and streams, many of 
which are almost unfished because of 
the great difficulty of launching a boat 
and removing it from the stream. 

Because of rough banks and heavy 
brush, many streams can be fished from 
the bank only at highway bridges, even 
though excellent fishing is going to 
waste in the areas which can only be 
reached by boat. 

Under the program made possible 
by the license increase, the Game and 
Fish Commission will build a launching 
ramp approximately every 15 miles on 
20 major streams more than 2,933 miles 
long, plus one ramp for every thousand 
acres of water not now served by a 
ramp in 12 private power company and 
T.V.A. reservoirs with a total acreage 
of more than 33,000 acres. 

In all, the Commission plans to con- 
struct more than 219 of the more ur- 
gently needed ramps over a four to five 
year period. More than 10 years will 
probably be required to complete the 
program. There are 42 ramps planned 
for construction during the current fis- 
cal year for a total anticipated cost of 
approximately $100,000. 

Because of the number of ramps 
needed and the limited amount of 
money available each year for ramp 
construction from license fees, ramps 
will only be constructed this year in 
areas re local interest in the project 
is stroi 

Selec the areas for ramp con- 

struction i ised on fishing pressure 
and populal n studies of the areas in- 
volved by Commission fisheries super- 
visors, who must select the area as be- 
ing a priority location. This year, ap- 
proximately 10 ramps each will be built 
in the four Commission regions, to in- 
sure fair geographic distribution of the 


first ramps. Local county or city gov- 
ernments must be willing to participate 
in the acquisition, construction, and 
maintenance of the areas, in order to 
spread out Commission funds over as 
many ramps as possible. 

Ramps will only be built on areas 
which belong to the state, especially 
highway right-of-way crossings at 
bridges, or on selected priority areas 
which are deeded to the state by the 
county, city, or private individuals. No 
state funds will be used to purchase the 

Construction of the concrete rarrtp 
itself will be done by Game and Fish 
Commission workers. The county will 
be required to build an all-weather road 
and parking area at the rampsite large 
enough to accommodate anticipated 
needs, and must also agree to maintain 
the road and parking area. The Game 
and Fish Commission will repair the 
ramp itself, if necessary. If the local 
government wishes, it may install other 
facilities on the area, including picnic 
tables, trash cans, fireplaces, tentsites, 
toilets, etc. Federal funds for this pur- 
pose are available to local governments 
under the federal Land and Water Con- 
servation Fund, which also pays for 
part of the ramp construction done by 
the Game and Fish Commission. Money 
for the Fund is obtained by entrance 
fees charged at federal recreation areas 

under the Golden Eagle program, but 
no fee will be charged for use of ramps 
built by the Game and Fish Commis- 

At present, region managers of the 
Game and Fish Commission are nego- 
tiating with county officials in 42 loca- 
tions which have been selected by the 
Commission for ramp construction, pro- 
vided local support is given to the proj- 
ects and a suitable site can be found. 
Here is a list of the projects: 

North Georgia: 

Chattahoochee River above Atlanta, 
two ramps; Lake Nottely; Oostanaula 
River, two ramps; Lake Chatuge; Lake 
Tugalo; Etowah River; Lake Seed. 

Middle Georgia: 

Oconee River, three ramps; Flint River, 
three ramps; Goat Rock Reservoir; Sa- 
vannah River; Lake Oliver; Ocmulgee 
River, two ramps. 

South Georgia: 

Flint River, four ramps; Chattahoochee 
River; St. Mary's River; Ocmulgee 
River, two ramps; Satilla River; Little 
River; Alapaha River, Suwanee River. 

Coastal Georgia: 

Altamaha River, two ramps; Savannah 
River; Ogeechee River, three ramps; 
Oconee River; Canoochee River; 
Ohoopee River, Ocmulgee River. 













Season-Sept. 9 through Oct. 8, 1966 and 
Dec. 6 through Jan. 14, 1967. 

Bag Limit— 12 Daily, possession limit 24. 


Season— Sept. 15 through Nov. 23, 1966. 
Bag Limit— 15 Daily, possession limit 30. 



Open streams— Oct. 15 


First half-Oct. 8 



Archery Pre-Season Deer Hunt— Oct. 1, 
1966 through Oct. 29, 1966 in any county 
or portion of a county which has an open 
gun season for deer hunting in the 1966-67 

Bag Limit— As established by counties Un- 
der the gun season regulations, except that 
archers may take deer of either sex during 
this special season. During the regular 
season, all archers must conform to bag 
limits and sex regulations as established 
for firearm regulations. In no case may a 
hunter kill more than two deer during one 
year by any method or methods. 


Southeast Ga. Season— Oct. 29, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the following 

Brantley, Bryan, Bulloch, Burke, Cam- 
den, Candler, Charlton, Chatham, Clinch 
County south of the Atlantic Coastline 
Railroad and east of the run of Suwanoo- 
chee Creek, Echols County east of U. S. 
129 and south of Ga. 187, Effingham, 
Emanuel north of U. S. 80, Evans, Glas- 
cock, Glynn, Jefferson, Jenkins, I.iherty, 
Long, Mcintosh, Pierce County south of 
U. S. 82 and east of Ga. 121, Screven, 
Tattnall, Washington and Wayne counties. 

Bag Limit- Two (2) Bucks. Hunting with 
dogs is allowed in all of the above counties. 


Season- Oct. 15, 1966 through Feb. 28, 

Bag Limit-?' Daily, possession limit 6. 


Season-Oct. 15, 1966 through Feb. 28, 


Bag Limit— 10 Daily. 


Season-Oct. 29, 1966 through Feb. 28, 
1967, Exception: Coweta County opens 
Oct. 1. 1966 through Jan. 21, 1967. 
No Bag Limit. 


N. Ga. Season-Oct. 29, 1966 through Feb. 

28, 1967. 

Bag Limit— One ( 1 ) per night per person. 

.S'. Ga. Season— No closed season. 

No Bag Limit. 



Southwest Ga. Season— Nov. 5, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the following 

Baker, Calhoun, Chattaehoochee, De- 
catur, Dougherty, Early , Grady, Lee 
County west of U. S. 19, Marion, Mitchell, 
Muscogee, Seminole, Stewart, Terrell, 
Thomas, YVehster and Worth County south 
of U. S. 82. 

Bag Limit— Two ( 2 ) Bucks, except in 
Baker, Calhoun, Grady. Dougherty, and 
Thomas counties where the bag limit is 
two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one 
(1) doe. Exception: The Worth County 
bag limit shall be one ( 1 ) buck only for 
the season. 

Hunting with dogs will be allowed in 
all of the counties listed above during the 
season with the exception of Chattahoo- 
chee, Muscogee, and Worth counties, where 
hunting with dogs will be prohibited in 
ordei to prevent over-harvest of deer and 
to insure continued growth of the deer 

North and Middle Ga. Season- -Nov. 5, 
1966 through Nov. 28. 1466 in the fol- 
lowing counties: 

Banks Count) east of U. S. 441, Bald- 
win. Bartow County south of the Etowah 
River west of I . S, 41, Butts, Columbia, 

Crawford County north of U. S. 80, Daw- 
son, Fannin, Floyd County east of U. S. 
27 and north of U. S. 411, Gilmer County 
west of U. S. 76 and southwest of Ga. 52 
and southeast of the Big Creek Gap Road 
to the Fannin County Line, Green, Haber- 
sham County west of U. S. 23 and south 
of Ga. 17 south of Hollywood, Hancock, 
Haralson, Henry, Jasper, Jones, Lamar, 
Lincoln, Lumpkin, McDuffie, Monroe, 
Morgan, Murray, Newton, Oglethorpe 
County south of U. S. 78, Paulding, Polk 
County east of U. S. 27 and south of U. S. 
278, Putnam, Rahun, Richmond, Rockdale, 
Schley, Stephens County south of LI. S. 
123 and west of Ga. 17 north of Toccoa, 
Talbot, Taliaferro, Towns, Union, War- 
ren, White. Walton, Wilkinson, and Wilkes 
County east of Ga. 47 and south of LI. S. 

Bag Limit— Two (2) Bucks, except that in 
order to harvest a bumper crop of deer, 
Jasper, Jones, Monroe, Putnam and Mc- 
Duffie counties will be open for either-sex 
deer hunting on the last day of the regular 
season, Nov. 28, 1966, with a bag limit of 
no more than one ( 1 ) doe deer. The regu- 
lar season bag limits will also apply dur- 
ing this period, provided that no gun 
hunter during the entire year may take 
more than two (2) bucks or one (1) buck 
and one ( 1 ) doe by any method or 

Deer hunting with dogs is prohibited in 
all of the above listed counties, and it is 
illegal to run. chase, or pursue deer with 
dogs in any of these counties. 


West Central Ga. Season— Nov. 5, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the counties of 
Chattahoochee, Marion. Muscogee, Stew- 
art, and Talbot. 

Bag Limit—One ( 1 ) per season, 
Southwest Ga. Season — Nov. 19, 1966 
through Feb. 28, 1967 in the counties of 
Baker. Calhoun. Decatur, Dougherty. Early, 
Grady, Miller, Mitchell, Seminole, and 

Bag I limit— Two (2) per season. 


Season Nov. 19. 1966 through Feb. 28, 

Bag Limit 12 Daily, possession limit 36. 


Season-Nov. 19. 1966 through Feb. 28, 

V Ga. Hag Limit-5 Daily. 
S. Ga. Hag Limit-\0 Daily. 


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TRPI A ' 2/ N0VEMBER ' 1966 


«# ••* 




Volume I Number 2 


The Quail Capital of the World Jim Morrison 1 

What's happening to Georgia's quail? 
Venison Vacation Dean Wohlgemuth 4 

Managed deer hunts are a tradition 
Pointers for Bobwhites Ronald Simpson 6 

Tips on how to hunt 'em 
Meet Your Commissioner . Jim Tyler 7 

Leonard Bassford, vice chairman 
Saltwater Fishing? Why Not Georgia? Glenn Smith 8 

November's the best time for saltwater angling 
Happy Hunting Grounds Jim Morrison 10 

The story of the license increase 
Which Is Most Dangerous — Man 

or Gun? Dean Wohlgemuth 12 

A look at how hunting accidents occur 
Get the Jump on Ducks . . Dean Wohlgemuth 14 

Duck hunting is still a popular sport 
Sportsman's Calendar 17 

Up-to-Date hunting, fishing season information 

Carl E. Sanders 


Judge Harley Langdale, Leonard Bassford, 

Chairman Vice Chairman 

Valdosta-8th District Augusta-lOth District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. Charles L. Davidson, Jr. 

Newnan-6th District Avondale Estates— 4th District 

James Darby Rankin M. Smith 

Vidalia-lst District Atlanta-5th District 

Richard Tift J. B. Langford 

Albany-2nd District Calhoun-7th District 

William E. Smith Edgar B. Dunlap 

Americus-3rd District Gainesville-9th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



Howard D. Zeller Jack A. Crockford 

Program Planning Field Operations 


eon Kirkland, Fisheries Charles M. Frisbie, 

ibert Handy, Game Marine Fisheries 

aw Enforcement Jim Morrison, Information and 


ille, N. Ga. Frank Parrish, Fitzgerald, S. Ga. 
David Gould, Brunswick, Coast 


Dan Keever, Photographer 

Jim Tyler, Staff Writer 
Glenn Smith, Stall Writer 

Wildlife is where you find it 

If there is one single lesson to be gleaned from the 
articles which appear in this month's issue, it probably 
boils down to the little understood principle that wildlife 
is where you find it for a very good reason, and fre- 
quently man's efforts to change nature's plans are a 
foolish waste of effort and money. 

If this simple reason could be learned by all of the 
state conservation agencies in the United States, as well 
as by the sportsmen who pay for their programs and ex- 
pect results, many dollars of the sportsmen's license 
money would not have gone down the drain with so little 
to show for it in all too many cases. 

Undoubtedly, the problem is much more acute in the 
field of game management, where animal species cover 
larger and more diverse habitat areas than do fish, which 
are rather severely concentrated in clearly-distinguish- 
able habitat areas. 

For instance, how many petitions have you seen lately 
demanding that a State game and fish agency stock red 
snapper or sailfish in fresh water streams and lakes? That 
obviously would be a waste of time. 

But with game animals, things aren't quite so black 
and white. Take the raccoon, an animal that requires 
extensive swamps and bottomlands to survive in num- 
bers. For this reason, it is most populous in South Geor- 
gia where these conditions exist. Stocking it in the dry 
hills and mountains of North Georgia will never over- 
come the unsuitable habitat there, even though avid coon 
hunters and conservationists devoutly wish that some- 
thing could be done. 

Other examples can be brought forward, such as the 
thousands of dollars wasted every year by well meaning 
sportsmen who attempt to stock quail in areas which will 
never support a high quail population because the exist- 
ing land use pattern does not produce the food and cover 
that quail must have to flourish. 

The simple principle that game is where you find it is 
recognized by Georgia's game biologists. For this reason, 
their efforts are devoted to improving game species that 
are compatible geographically with the use that the land 
is being put to. This is the reason they have in the past 
frequently concentrated on deer stocking and protection 
as Georgia's forests rapidly grew in size. 

This is the reason that they are now actively searching 
for a woods bird to help replace declining quail popula- 
tions, since the Game and Fish Commission cannot cut 
the ever growing pine trees or cultivate the spreading 
pastures, neither of which are good quail habitat. 

This is not to say that nothing can be done to preserve 
Georgia's magnificent quail hunting. But to more fully 
understand the reasons why the task is so difficult, and 
what can be done to slow the trend down, we recom- 
mend that you carefully read the article on the facing 
page about Georgia's quail hunting. 

Then turn to page 10 and see what the Game and Fish 
Commission proposes to do about it. Your eyes may be 
opened. —J. M. 

ON THE COVER: With a thunderous heart stopping 
commotion, a Georgia bobwhite quail takes to the air 
from under the feet of our startled hunter. There is no 
better illustration of why Georgia is "The Quail Capital 
of the World."— Photo by Dan Keever. 

Photo Credits: Dan Keever 1, 4, t. 6, t. & b. r. 7, t. 10. c. 12; Jim 
Morrison 3, c. 6, 8, «>, c. 10. t. 1 . & b. 1. 12. 14. 15, 16; John Robin- 
son, Power Boating b. 1.7; Glenn Smith t. r. 12; Walter Stephens 2. 

Georgia Game and Fish is the official monthly magazine of the Geor- 
gia Game and Fish Commission, published at the Commission's of- 
fices, 401 State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia 303.14. No advertising ac- 
cepted. Subscriptions arc $1 for one year or $2.50 for three years. 
Printed by Stein Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of ad- 
dress change must include both old and new address and ZIP code, 
with 30 days notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without 
7 IP code. Articles and photographs may be reprinted. Proper credit 
should be given. Contributions arc welcome, but the editors assume 
no responsibility or liability for loss or damage of articles, photo- 
graphs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Georgia. 


SVM 1 






By nature a scratching ground bird, the quail depends on highly nutritious weed seeds common to fertilized cropland. 

Pine forests offer him little nourishment. 



Suddenly, buzzing brown blurs 
filled the air through the small open- 
ing in the pines, rising so rapidly that 
the sound of my Sweet Sixteen ex- 
ploding down the fire lane took the 
place of my next heartbeat, sand- 
wiched between two loud reports from 
Leon's 1 2 gauge at my side. 

Where flying shapes had appeared to 
draw together in a knot the moment 
before, now soft brown feathers gently 
parachuted down over the pine needles 
in the narrow strip. 

What's Happening to Georgia's Quail 
By Jim Morrison 

"Dead, dead, dead, here boy, dead, 
dead, dead bird, here boy, dead," in- 
toned Leon, calling his two brown and 
tan pointers back to the spot where 
the unexpected covey came up wild. 

One by one, the dogs sniffed out the 
birds and returned them to their mas- 
ter — two . . . three . . . "Any more?" 
. . . four . . . "That's all." . . . "Wait 
. . . dead, dead, dead, dead bird" . . . 
five. Five! 

Five quail on one covey rise? Good 
shooting, you say? Or maybe just luck'.' 

Maybe both, but still a hunting story 
worth talking about . . . one of those 
stories the grandchildren will probably 
hear about 'the good old days" of 
Georgia quail hunting. 

But wait a minute. That story didn't 
happen in the good old days. It hap- 
pened almost yesterday, last season, or 
the year before. It could have hap- 
pened today, and it might happen 
again tomorrow, because Georgia still 
deserves the proud title of "Quail 
( lapital of the World." 


During the 1964-65 season, more 
than three and a third million quail 
were taken by an estimated 135,000 
quail hunters. To average 25 birds 
apiece during the season, it's obvious 
that some fortunate hunters got their 
limit of 12 more than one day to make 
up for the kind of marksmanship most 
of us produce on exploding quail 

It's also apparent why Georgia quail 
hunting has made the state famous for 
more than just peaches of the fruit 
and female variety. This kind of hunt- 
ing has long been a powerful lure to 
hunters from all over the country from 
President Eisenhower on down to mil- 
lionaire plantation owners and ordi- 
nary sportsmen like you and me. 

Regardless of our financial back- 
ground at the moment, I imagine that 
most of us have at least experienced 
the invigorating flow of fresh air 
through our lungs, the pleasure of 
watching good dogs work protective 
cover, and the all too brief thrill of 
the covey rise and a quickly aimed 

Of course, the quality of the quail 
hunting you've experienced varies plen- 
ty with where you live, or at least 
where you hunt. South Georgia, espe- 
cially the Albany and Thomasville sec- 
tions, has long held the crown in the 
"Quail Capital," but good quail shoot- 
ing is found over the entire coastal 
plains and into the piedmont area of 
middle Georgia. Farm areas in North- 
west Georgia still produce good shoot- 
ing, but quail rapidly thin out with the 
approach of the Blue Ridge moun- 

But where you are hunting within 
these areas plays perhaps as great a 

(tame biologist Fussell uses a drop 

slick to control burn an area inside a 
plowed firebreak on the Allatoona public 
hunting area. lied burning improves 

(ji/ail habitat econ i/< ally. 

role in how good your hunting is. 

Even as Leon Kirkland and I gath- 
ered fallen birds into our game pouches 
on that memorable Saturday afternoon 
hunt, we could see the evidences of 
future quail hunts on the same area 
that would probably never again pro- 
duce five bagged birds on a covey rise, 
or 1 5 birds for three or four hours of 
hunting by two shotgunners. 

"That's the wild covey I told you 
about," Leon said. "I'm glad we got 
those ornery cusses. I've been trying 
to kill those quail all season. They 
won't hold for a point, and they al- 
ways get up wild 200 yards in front of 
the dogs. We were just lucky to get a 
shot at 'em." 

Luck indeed. Just a few more feet 
and the skillful flyers would have been 
darting through thick pine saplings 
higher than our heads surrounding the 
narrow firebreak. 

As we trudged over the abandoned 
middle Georgia farmland, our eyes 
seldom failed to discover a growing 
army of small pine trees, springing 
from the once cleared fields and pas- 
tures of a small family farm. 

Further back, we had passed the 
weathered shell of the farmhouse it- 
self, now choked by weeds and honey- 
suckle vines. We carefully skirted the 
house and the abandoned well shaft 
that we knew must be nearby. 

"I'm going to make a deer stand in 
that old house next year," chuckled 
Leon, an allround sportsman if there 
ever was one. As if to dramatically 
prove his point, "look at the size of 
that hoofprint," he suddenly ex- 
claimed, kneeling beside the unmistak- 
able fresh footprints of a deer across 
the plowed firebreak where we were 
hunting at the moment. 

Later, hunting across a small patch 
of timber filled with old felled tree- 
tops, a large, big animal suddenly 
jumped up from beneath the branches 
of an old tree top and bounced saucily 
away from us, white flag waving in 
our surprised faces, 
a heap a sight better 'n farmn'." 

Resisting the impulse to shoot at the 
medium-sized doe, I was impressed 
that Leon's well-trained pointers paid 
the deer no attention at all, but con- 
tinued busily searching the short grass 
borders of the woods for birds. It was 
clearly evident that deer hunting was 
probably every bit as good on the area 
we were hunting as quail, at least for 
the time being. 

What Leon and I were seeing was 
not unique. Equally saddening sights 
for the avid quail hunter can be seen 
over the entire State of Georgia, but 
especially so in the middle Georgia 
piedmont area. 

In this section of Georgia, as well as 
many other parts, the time of the small 
family farms that once covered Geor- 
gia like a patch-work quilt is gone for- 
ever, killed by machinery and modern 
science that now make farming largely 
unprofitable for all but a few large 
operations who can survive on high 
volume of production and low profits. 

The plight of the small family farm 
is well illustrated by the story of a man 
who stopped in a small country store 
and was amazed to find the storekeep- 
er buying eggs from local farm women 
for 50 cents a dozen, only to turn 
around and sell them to customers for 
45 cents a dozen. Asked how he could 
make a profit that way, the storekeep- 
er replied, "Well, it's not much, but it's 
a heap a sight better 'n farmin'." 

The trend away from agriculture 
has been most pronounced in the roll- 
ing hill areas of the piedmont which 
are not as suited for working by ma- 
chinery, as are the level fields of 
southwest Georgia. 

The rapid drop in small family 
farms on a state-wide basis is startling. 
In 1950, there were approximately 
214,000 individual farm owners in 
Georgia. By 1963, this figure plunged 
to only 106,000 owners, a 100 per 
cent decline. 

At the same time, farm youngsters 
were leaving home for better jobs and 
a higher standard of living in the city 
— they hoped. Georgia is rapidly be- 
coming industrialized, and the indus- 
tries go to the people in the cities, 
drawing more farm youth and leaving 
more land uncultivated. 

What is happening to the land that 
is no longer needed for crop produc- 
tion? Leon and I could readily see the 
most common answer — trees, usually 
pines, and thick, brushy areas. In most 
cases, the land is simply being allowed 
to lie idle, slowly, and naturally grow- 
ing up into forests. In other cases, the 
change is being deliberately speeded 
up by landowners planting pine seed- 
lings for pulpwood and saw timber. 

During the years from 1945 through 
1 964, the Georgia Forestry Commis- 
sion estimated that more than two mil- 
lion acres were planted with almost a 
billion and a half pine seedlings. 

Each year for the past 20 years, 
more than 200,000 acres of open land 
a year have become forest land, either 
naturally or by seeding. This repre- 
sents more than two million acres 
every 10 years. In 1934, there were 
only 21 million acres of trees in Geor- 
gia. Now. there are more than 27 mil- 
lion acres, leaving only about 10 mil- 
lion acres of open land. 

PART II: December Issue 

Georgia's reputation for the world's fittest quail shooting is still unchallenged. 


4 growing army of little pine trees all over Georgia has signaled the decline of quail hunting in many areas, as has the sharp increase in 
permanent pastureland used by dairy and beef cattle. 


By Dean Wohlgemuth 

Hunting Areas of 

It's called Turkey Day. or Thanks- 
giving Day by everyone. To most peo- 
ple it means turkey on the table. 

To still others, it means seeing that 
big football game. 

But to thousands of Georgia deer 
hunters, not only the day but the en- 
tire week has come to be a tradition of 
a different sort. More and more. 
Georgians think of that last week of 
November as "deer hunting week." 
And if things go right early in the 
week, there's a good likelihood the 
Thanksgiving oast will be graced by 
venison rather than turkey. 

The tradition was born out of the 

fine deer hunting made available, 

i I hanksgiving week, on the 

mam management areas operated by 

This wily old buck is curious about the hunter he's spied sitting out in the 
open in hopes a deer will come by and give him a shot. But that buck 
may be in for a surprise, too, when the hunter realizes he's there. 

go. Not only that, he has an excellent 
chance — generally better than on the 
"outside" hunts — to find his deer. 
The herd is concentrated into the 
area. This doesn't make getting your 
deer automatic, however. 

Many deer hunters plan their week 
■of vacation to coincide with the week- 
long buck hunts on the managed 
areas. Those who can't go that week, 
or those who prefer not to go that 
week — or some who don't get their 
deer that week, still have other oppor- 
tunities for hunting the managed areas. 
The variety of hunts on these areas 
is getting better each year. 

For example, last year the first 
primitive weapons hunt for the state 
was held on the Warwoman area, near 
Clayton. Muzzle loading firearms — 
shotguns and rifles — and long bows 
and crossbows were the only weapons 
allowed. This year, this feature was 
extended to three more areas. Clark 
Hill. Russell, and Chickasawhatchee. 

Also in north Georgia, a new area 

the Game and Fish Commission. 

Under intense care, deer popula- 
tions are excellent and growing. If they 
were allowed to grow too large for the 
available food supply, the populations 
would dwindle because of starvation 
and disease. This means each year a will be opened for deer hunting. A three- 

surplus of deer must be removed. This 
assignment is given to the hunter. In- 
deed, the hunter is the reason behind 
the managed area. 

The hunter who knows no place on 
private land where he can go — and 
annually, this number grows by leaps 
and bounds — finds the management 
areas to be a blessing. Here he can 
hunt and he knows it. There's no 
chance involved in finding a place to 

day hunt for bucks only will be limited 
to the first 400 hunters to check in at 
the Allatoona area. 

This year, hunts on Suwanoochee 
will be free, although a hunter must 
check in and out. All other areas will 
charge a fee of $5 for each hunt, as in 
past years. 

The very popular Chickasawhatchee 
area will be open for buck only hunts 
on three two-day periods. For each 
two-day period. 300 hunters will be 

issued permits after a drawing from 
applications. Applications must be 
mailed to the State Game and Fish 
Commission, 401 State Capitol, be- 
tween Nov. 7 and Nov. 1 2. 

Antlerless hunts are scheduled for 
Clark Hill and Cedar Creek areas on a 
limited basis. Both are Jan. 2. Cedar 
Creek's antlerless hunt will be limited 
to the first 500 hunters in line at the 
check station at 8 a.m. the day before 
the hunt. Clark Hill will be limited to 
300, and like Cedar Creek, the first 
hunters in line at 8 a.m. the day before 
the hunt, will get the permits. 

Management areas in mountainous 
north Georgia hold the most promise 
this year for hunters anxious to get a 
buck. Middle Georgia areas are among 
the most popular because they are easi- 
er to hunt than the rugged mountain 
terrain, but populations seem to be in 
better condition in the mountains. 

Warwoman has a good population, 
and has the largest deer in the North 
Georgia region. "There is not much 
participation in our hunts there be- 
cause it is difficult to hunt. But if a 
person wants to try for a trophy, this 
is the place to go in North Georgia," 
said C. V. Waters, manager of the 
Commission's Northern Region. 

Burton, Chattahoochee, Chestatee 
and Blue Ridge areas have populations 
equal to or better than last year, and 
should produce at least as many deer 
to hunters as last year. Better results 
are anticipated. 

Blue Ridge, one of the largest of 
the state's management areas, has al- 
ways been one of the favored places 

of Georgia hunters. While access is 
very good on all areas. Lake Russell 
area has more and better roads, and 
provides the best visibility. 

Populations are at the carrying ca- 
pacity on all areas, and a good repro- 
duction last fall has left a good number 
of deer to be harvested. Track counts 
have shown good quantities of deer. 

In middle Georgia, Clark Hill and 
Cedar Creek again have excellent 
deer populations. The fairly new Pied- 
mont Experiment Station area's popu- 
lation is not as dense, but should pro- 
vide very good hunting, said Dick 
Whittington, game management super- 
visor for the Middle Region for the 
Commission. Biggest bucks in middle 
Georgia areas are to be found at Pied- 
mont Experiment, he said. Also, the 
number of hunters is much smaller. 

Because of excellent access to Clark 
Hill, bucks don't last too long there, 
consequently they are less in numbers 
and smaller. At Cedar Creek, bucks 
are larger than at Clark Hill, yet smaller 
than at Piedmont Experiment. 

Generally, it is hoped that a few 
less deer will be taken off middle 
Georgia's areas this year than last, 
however, it is possible as many will 
be harvested as last year. Additional 
hunts other than buck-only hunts at 
Clark Hill this season are aimed at 
providing more varied sport for more 
people while still helping to balance the 
buck and doe populations. 

The picture is not quite as bright 
in the Southern Region, according to 
Regional Manager Frank Parrish. 
"While it is difficult to predict very 

accurately because deer populations 
are hard to count in such thick coun- 
try, we have the deer to offer some 
promising hunting," he said. "We have 
no fantastic herd, yet there is a good 
huntable population at Suwanoochee. 
Chickasawhatchee will probably offer 
good hunting for buck hunters. How- 
ever, I'm pretty sure the success ratio 
will not be as high as in the past. One 
reason is that there are not as many 
bucks as we'd like to have. The big 
problem here is that all the country 
around this area is open to hunting 
with dogs. We feel that constant dog- 
ging of deer over a long season har- 
rasses the deer to the extent that it sets 
up stresses which have an effect on 
reproduction. The situation is the same 
at Suwanoochee." 

Suwanoochee. he said, is a complete- 
ly different situation from any other 
management area in the state. Heavy 
undergrowth of palmetto and gall- 
berry exists, leaving the hunter with 
two choices— get a tree stand or hunt 
the firebreaks and woods roads. 

Studies on reproduction in South 
Georgia areas show that reproduction 
was down 24 per cent this year. In 
samples of does, nine of 10 had only 
one embryo where under good condi- 
tions, at least half of the does should 
have had twins. This could be an in- 
dication of the effects of harrassment 
by dogs, Parrish said. 

Studies at the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission's property along the Savannah 
River showed that when hunting with 
dogs was begun, reproduction of deer 
dropped very sharply. 










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October 29 for small 

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Clark Hill 








Coleman River 



John's Mountain 



Lake Burton 




Lake Russell 




Oaky Woods 


Piedmont Experiment 










Swallow Creek 










1 J 1 

Pointers for 

Tips on how to hunt 

By Ronald Simpson 
Game Biologist 

The motionless stance of a bird 
dog, the sudden rush of beating wings, 
and the fast shooting that follows is a 
scene familiar to all quail hunters. As 
familiar as the hunt, is the feeling of 
satisfaction that follows a meal of 
southern fried quail after a hard day 
of hunting. 

Excellent quail hunting is part of 
our heritage in the South, especially 
here in Georgia. This high quality 
hunting has gained a nationwide repu- 
tation for Georgia and annually at- 
tracts many hunters from over the en- 
tire United States. 

The bobwhite is essentially a farm- 
land game species. This, however, does 
not mean that forest land cannot pro- 
vide good quail hunting. If conditions 
are suitable for quail in wooded areas, 
as can be maintained with proper man- 
agement practices, large numbers of 
quail can be supported. 

The bobwhite is usually found on or 
near field borders, fence rows, or 
wherever there is a change from a 
grass or shrub area to woodland. In 
wooded areas with a huntable quail 
population, the bobwhite is likely to be 
found just about anywhere but, here 
again, it is usually found near shrub 
areas which provide cover for them. 

Quail hunting is not affected by the 
time of day as is deer, turkey, or 
squirrel hunting. On warm days it is 
better lo hunt during the cool morning 
and late afternoon hours as a bird dog 
will not get as hot and will be able to 
find bird : easier. 

I he shotgun is the standard quail 
"getter." The type of shotgun and the 
size of shot used are as varied as the 
hunters that use them. Everything 
from a single shot to an automatic 
shotgun in gauges from 410 to 12 are 
used. However, a 12, 16. or 20 gauge 
double barrel, pump, or automatic 
shotgun arc the most preferred. The 
shotgun may have a modified choke 

The air is crisp, the dog is on point. 
Up comes the quail, and . . . well 
what else could be a finer sport— or 
more typically Georgia? 

or an improved cylinder with a barrel 
length from 18 to 32 inches. A 26 inch 
barrel with an improved cylinder 
should prove to be best under most 
circumstances. The best shot size to 
use is the number 8 but this also varies 
with the type of cover hunted and 
hunter preference. 

Quail may be hunted with or with- 
out bird dogs if a person knows an 
area well enough, but hunting with 
dogs is unquestionably more success- 
ful. Pointers and setters are the most 
common types of bird dogs. The best 
combination in hunting with bird dogs 
is to have both a close ranging and a 
wide ranging dog, that is, a dog which 



-£ -4,»*~»*-Jfrr 

works near the hunter and one which 
works a large area around the hunter. 
In hunting large open fields a wide 
ranging dog is best and in hunting 
wooded and dense shrub areas a close 
ranging dog is best. 

A bird dog will find dead birds 
which would otherwise be lost. This is 
true in all types of cover because a bob- 
white blends in well with the forest 
floor and its downed location is easily 
lost when hunting in grass and shrub 
areas. A bird dog will also find many 
wounded birds which will sometimes 
run considerable distances through un- 
dergrowth and eventually die. 

Practice makes almost perfect when 
shooting quail. Even the best marks- 
men do not score a kill with every 
shot. The greatest obstacle a new 
quail hunter must overcome is shooting 
into the entire covey when the birds 
are flushed. The experienced hunter 
calmly concentrates on just one bird 
at a time and in doing so may kill two 
or three birds on the covey rise. 

In areas with a high quail population 
many hunters prefer to hunt only 
coveys and do not hunt single birds 
after a covey is flushed. Hunting 
singles can be fun and is good experi- 
ence for a beginning quail hunter. 
Shooting singles will allow him to con- 
centrate on just one bird and readily 
see his mistakes when shooting. 

The number of persons per hunting 
party should be kept to a minimum, 
two or three people, for safety reasons. 
Accidents are more likely to occur 
when live or six persons are in a quail 
hunting party because of the difficulty 
in positioning everyone so that he can 
get a safe shot and the laxness that 
may occur due to excitement when the 
birds flush. A large hunting party could 
be broken down into several smaller 
hunting parties and. thus, provide bet- 
ter and safer quail hunting for each 

meet your 

The State Game and Fish Commission is a 
constitutional body composed of 1 1 
members, one from each of the ten 
congressional districts in Georgia, plus one 
member from the six coastal counties. 

Its members are appointed by the 
governor for seven year terms. 

In this series of articles, you will meet 
individually the men who represent you 
in the conservation and development of 
Georgia's wildlife resources. 

By Jim Tyler 

"There were a hundred boats churn- 
ing the water behind me. It was the 
National Regatta Outboard Motor 
Race. I was in third place. And then it 
happened. My motor blew up. Those 
one hundred boats roared by, their 
wakes pushing me back and forth. . ." 
The speaker was 10th District Game 
and Fish Commissioner Leonard Bass- 
ford of Augusta. 

"But golly," he chuckled, "that was 
a long time back. It was in 1928 in the 
Cape Fear River near Wilmington, 
North Carolina. The boats would only 
go about 45 miles per hour, but that 
was fast then. I raced for a few years 
in my younger days, won a few, then 
quit boating for a long time. 

Now 60, Bassford is back to boat- 
ing again, but his boat racing is limited 
to chasing the schooling bass on Clark 
Hill Reservoir. It probably isn't as ex- 
citing as his previous racing, but the 
action is pretty fast when racing a boat 
after hungry bass that break the Clark 
Hill surface in a feeding frenzy while 
they pursue schools of small shad. 

An enthusiastic fisherman, Bassford 

has one boat for chasing bass, a dif- 
ferent boat for conventional fishing, 
and a cabin cruiser for trolling and 
pleasure riding. 

On a recent visit to Clark Hill, Bass- 
ford took his wife Doris and two of 
his grandchildren for a ride in the 26 
foot cabin cruiser. There are three 
daughters and four grandchildren in 
the Bassford family. 

The boat cut cleanly through the 
water while the passengers savored the 
ride, the lake, and the late summer 
sky. When it was over, the Commis- 
sioner eased the cruiser into the boat 
dock slip like an old pro. 

A veteran fisherman and boatman. 
Commissioner Bassford is a hunter as 
well. He looks forward to dove season 
each year; he's also been known to drop 
a few quail. 

Like everyone else, it's not all rod 
and gun and sky. The businessman 
side shows the lifelong resident of 
Augusta as the owner of a textile by- 
product company in Augusta — Bass- 
ford and Company. 

His activities on the State Game and 

Fish Commission are as varied as they 
are many. And with his close touch 
with the sportsman's needs and wants, 
he has been a very effective commis- 
sioner. Presently vice chairman, he is 
in the third year of his second term as 
a commissioner. He served previously 
from 1948 to 1955, and was chair- 
man in 1954. 

The biggest feather in his many 
feathered commissioner's hat, repre- 
sents his efforts in getting the ball roll- 
ing for the purchase of the McDuffie 
Public Fishing Area near Thomson. 
Other notable accomplishments include 
his part in the fish stocking in Clark 
Hill. During his first term as a commis- 
sioner, a rather large feather was added 
for his work in the project of stocking 
deer and turkeys in the Clark Hill Man- 
agement Area. 

All these many streams of Leonard 
Bassford's commitment and enjoyment 
of the outdoors, flow smoothly and form 
one river of fact. Georgia outdoorsmen 
have one of their kind sitting up there 
calling the plays on the future of Geor- 
gia's wildlife. 

Zipping across the water, Leonard Bassford 
guides his racing boat. This picture was 
taken nearly 40 years ago, when at 45mph 
you were really moving. 

On his favorite lake. Clark Hill. Bassford enjoys a bit of fishing with two of his grand- 
sons, lis a toss up as to who is having the best time. 

The best trout and bass fishing spots are on beds of oysters, called shell beds or "fish drops." 
High tide is usually best, when the shells are covered by water. 

Augusta Chronicle outdoor editor Bill Babb holds the evidence that sea trout and channel bass 
are in abundant supply on the Georgia coast during the late fall. 


Why Not 

By Glenn Smith 

The page of a calendar is thin. Per- 
haps the line also is thin that separates 
anglers into two groups, one that 
catches an abundance of fish and the 
other that doesn't. 

When it comes to fishing Georgia's 
coast, tearing off a page or two of the 
calendar means removing many of the 
second group of fishermen from the 
scene. It also brings out the most suc- 
cessful group. 

When the November page is top 
after tearing away all the summer 
months, then coastal fishing in Georgia 
comes into its own. This is the month 
for catching big stringers of channel 
bass and sea trout in direct contrast to 
freshwater fishing, which usually is 
considered best in early spring. 

Come November, private boat-own- 
ers have geared up for this annual 
fishing spree, while fishing camps with 
boats, motors, bait, and guides are 
ready for whoever may wish to try 
his — or her — luck at any one of a 
variety of species that are attracted to 
Georgia's unique coastline. 

A big feature of the Georgia coast 
is the great abaundance of natural 
sounds, bays, and inlets which provide 
protected feeding grounds for fish, not 
to mention quiet waters for fishermen 
who are at the mercy of the winds 
and waves in many other areas of the 

Georgia offers the advantage of a 
choice to salt water anglers. They can 
take advantage of the sheltered bays or 
rivers to fish for a variety of tasty 
and sporting species. On the other 
hand, the daring can go out as far as 
fifty miles for some mighty kings of 
the sport fishing world. 

November offers some true excite- 
ment for coastal fishermen, and the 
folks on the shoreline predict this will 
be a banner year. The spotted sea 
trout, also known as the speckled 
trout, just plain "trout", or winter 
trout, is probably the most abundant 
and frequently fished for of all coastal 
varieties, and they started hitting early 
this year, indicating a good run. The 
trout is a denizen of the sounds and 
rivers along the eastern edge of the state. 
It is world famous as a table delicacy, 
which is the main reason why it is so 
popular. It can be caught in the late 
months of the year, but is particularly 
bounteous in November. 

Another prizewinning fish at this 
time of the year is the red drum, or 
channel bass, red fish, bass, and spot 
tail. It can be caught year round, but 
the best months are October and No- 
vember. Smaller fish are caught in the 
rivers leading inland, but surf fisher- 
men catch larger red drum, as do 
anglers working the inlets. They are 
usually taken by still fishing with dead 
shrimp or cut bait, although surf cast- 
ing is quite popular. Inshore catches 
are especially good in grass beds and 
usually average two to ten pounds. 
Offshore, channel bass run ten to thir- 
ty pounds, and that's thirty pounds of 
excellent eating meat. 

All these many streams of Leonard 
Bassford's committment and enjoyment 
of the outdoors, flow smoothly and 
form one river of fact. Georgia out- 
doorsmen have one of their kind sit- 
ting up there calling the plays on the 
future of Georgia's wildlife. 

Another popular and more abundant 
fish at this time of the year in Georgia's 
coastal waters is the striped bass. 
Stripers are excellent food fish and 
can be caught during October in the 
bays and sounds leading to open wa- 
ters. A little later and early in the 
Spring, they will be found in fresh 
water rivers and tidal creeks. The best 
way to catch stripers is by trolling 
with spoons, jigs, or broken-back plugs. 
The best runs of this great game fish 
can be found in the Altamaha. Ogee- 
chee. Savannah, and St. Mary's rivers. 
They range in weight from three to 
40 pounds. 

The tides on the full of the moon 
will have an effect on fishing along 
the coast. The best choice for Novem- 
ber will be the first quarter around the 
20th. The last quarter. November 5th, 
will also be good. Three to five days 
either side of the full or new moon 
(Nov. 28 and 12) will produce less 
desirable results owing to strong flood 

Fishing for sea trout and red drum 
s very much the same. The best bait 
s live shrimp, but they can also be 

taken on cut mullet or artificial lures. 
If you're inclined to good sport, while 
losing an occasional fish, try light spin- 
ning tackle with 12 to 20 pound test 
monofilament line. If you want to in- 
crease the size of your catch, the ac- 
cepted gear includes a heavier bait 
casting rod and reel with 27 to 36 
pound test line. 

For trout, the boat should be 
anchored, preferably over oyster beds 
called "fish drops" by natives, using a 
slip float with the line allowed to drift 
back with the current or tide. Red 
drum fishing is best with a slip float 
or by surfcasting. The trout usually 
pick October to move into rivers and 
creeks from the sounds and bays. 

There are abundant facilities on the 
Georgia coast for all types of salt wa- 
ter fishing, but right now we'll concen- 
trate on the best bets for trout and 
bass fishing. The small boat is best, 
and if you own your own, you can 
launch it at one of a number of fishing 
camps. If you own a motor, but no 
boat, you can rent the boat, or a boat 
with motor at a fish camp. The great- 
est concentrations of fish camps are 
located in the Savannah area, near 
Shellman's Bluff, and at the resorts 
near Brunswick, but it is not impossi- 
ble to rent boats at other spots along 
the coast. 

If you are a newcomer to coastal 
fishing, it might be worth the invest- 
ment to hire a guide the first time you 
go out. The guides are not as plentiful 
as the boats, but most fish camps can 
provide a guide or at least recommend 
a spot where you can find one. You 
can also rent tackle at a reasonable 
rate if you don't own your own. 

The coastal fishing scene in Georgia 
is as good as any state in the South. 
The State Game and Fish Commission 
has a pamphlet which outlines the dif- 
ferent fishing that can be had in vari- 
ous seasons as well as the varieties of 
fish and facilities available to fisher- 
men. It can be obtained free by writ- 
ing the State Game and Fish Commis- 
sion, 401 State Capitol, Atlanta, 30334. 

There is nothing that can compare 
with the sight and scent of the sea on 
a sunny day, which is one reason why 
salt wi "er fishermen are so enthusias- 
tic about their sport. Coastal fishing 
will build a bigger appetite, bring on 
sounder sleep, and satisfy the urge to 
be outdoors better than any other 
type. And the sound of the surf in 
your ears is a music that can't be re 
produced anywhere else but right at 
the ocean's edge. 

Launching hoists are located at most fish- 
ing camps, hut boats must he equipped 
with lifting rings in most camps to use the 
hoist. Launching ramps are not practical in 
the tidal area. PHOTOS: Jim Morrison 

Shellman Bluff at Eulonia is one of the most pop- 
ular sport fishing villages on the Georgia coast. 
Fishing camps have bait, boats, motors, gas, guides, 
lodging, and restaurant facilities. 

The most popular bait for both the channel bass 
or "spottail bass" and the trout is shrimp, which 
are readily available until after the first of the 
year. This is the most common line rig. 




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Jim IVIOrriSOn /„ some parts of Georgia, it seems as if a posted sign is standard equipment for every tret 
on public hunting areas leased to the State Game and Fish Commission, the sign has a dif. 


Suppose for one awful moment that 
you are one of the estimated 100,000 
hunters who live in the metropolitan 
Atlanta area, or in one of Georgia's 
other growing cities. 

Make the picture even worse and 
pretend that you are one of the thou- 
sands of people who have recently 
moved there from a farm area that is 
many hundreds of miles away, perhaps 
in another state, and that you have ab- 
solutely no connections with a land- 
owner nearby to hunt on his property. 

Carry this awful nightmare one step 
further and imagine that you are driv- 
ing out of town in the country with 
your son Bill, shotguns in the trunk, 
looking for a place to jump a rabbit 
or two. 

Here's wheie the imaginary part 
takes oft and harsh reality steps in. 
You don't have to imagine what those 

roadside signs say for at least the first 
50 miles, because they really exist. It 
seems that almost every tree or fence- 
post has overnight sprouted a "No 
Hunting, No Fishing, No Trespassing. 
No Nothing" sign, followed by the not 
so veiled threat "Violators will be 

It's obvious that this trend toward 
posting of private land is all too com- 
mon in Georgia, especially around large 
cities where more and more of us live. 
The reasons for it are many, and most 
of them are very sound. 

In the first place, many of those 
new arrivals in town don't have any 
connections with landowners in the 
immediate area, and have few chances 
to make any. But, these people still 
enjoy hunting and would like to con- 
tinue it after moving into their new 
home. These hunters must find an out- 

let for their interests, so it's quite natu- 
ral that areas directly adjacent to the 
cities soon have all the hunting pres- 
sure that they can stand, frequently 
leading to the sprawl of posted signs, es- 
pecially in good hunting areas. 

The problem is rapidly compounded 
by inconsiderate hunters who "forget" 
to ask permission to hunt, and who 
may have some other mental lapse like 
forgetting to close the pasture gate on 
thoroughbred beef cattle, breaking 
down fences and posts while crossing 
over them, and perhaps even threaten- 
ing livestock, buildings, and people 
with injury from stray bullets, etc. 

Of course, we all like to think that 
anyone who hunts is a considerate 
sportsman who always asks permission 
to hunt and respects the property of 
others when he does. But this isn't al- 
ways the case, unfortunately. Just a few 


incidents of this kind by a small num- 
ber of inconsiderate, ungrateful indi- 
viduals can close thousands of acres of 
private land to everyone except the 
trespasser for hunting. 

True, it's probably easier to find a 
place to hunt rabbits or squirrels, es- 
pecially in South Georgia. But how 
about quail hunting? The farmer who 
hunts quail himself, and many do, re- 
gards them as among his most valu- 
able possessions. He frequently wants 
to save the few quail he has left for 
himself. If he has gone to some trouble 
and expense to raise quail, then he's 
more than likely to post his land. It's 
the natural thing to do, and there is 
no valid criticism of it that the land- 
less sportsman can make. 

For the law-abiding but landless 
sportsman, there are only two ap- 
proaches that can be made to private 
landowners. One is to come to the 
farmhouse with hat in hand and, in a 
friendly way, ask permission to hunt, 
politely retiring if refused. The other 
way, becoming more common, is to 
join a group of sportsmen who like to 
hunt and lease hunting rights from the 
landowner for perhaps 50 cents an 
acre a year. There is little criticism that 
can be made of this either. 

But how about the sportsman who 
has no connections, who doesn't belong 
to a group, and who can't afford to 
pay $300 a year himself to quail hunt 
on 600 acres? 

This is where the State Game and 
Fish Commission comes in. It is al- 
ready obvious in many areas of the 
state that the hunter's greatest problem 
is simply the problem of finding a 
place to hunt (or fish, in some areas). 
It is also equally obvious that this prob- 
lem isn't going to get any better in fu- 
ture years, with more and more hunt- 
ers and more and more posted or 
leased land. 

Realization of the need to do some- 
thing about this problem before it be- 
comes severe was one of the primary 
reasons why the Game and Fish Com- 
mission asked for and received an in- 
crease in the price of hunting and fish- 
ing licenses from the General Assembly. 

With this increase in the budget of 
the Commission, the State is now ac- 
tively attempting to lease the hunting 
rights on every acre of land that can be 
acquired which meets the requirements 
for a public hunting area. Generally, 
this means that the area should be 
composed of at least 15,000 acres of 
contiguous land under the ownership 
of a small number of owners that is 
capable of being managed as a public- 
hunting area should be. 

At present, approximately half a 
million acres of land meeting this de- 
scription is under lease to the State 
Game and Fish Commission. The Com- 

mission hopes to double this acreage as 
soon as the land can be leased, possibly 
reaching a goal of two million acres 
within the next five years. 

Money from the recent license in- 
crease will not be used to pay land 
owners for leasing their land to the 
State. These funds are used only for 
paying the salaries of area managers to 
patrol the areas and to improve the 
habitat, to purchase equipment for 
their use, and to provide needed sup- 
plies and materials, such as boundary 
signs, boundary paint, gates, bridges, 
access roads, food patches, etc. 

In all, more than four million acres 
of land owned by private timber com- 
panies in Georgia could be put under 
game management programs by co- 
operative agreements with the Com- 
mission. Advantages to the companies 
are several in number, including fire 
protection advantages by the assign- 
ment of a full-time area manager who 
would assist in spotting and reporting 
forest fires, as well as helping to prevent 

Because of the reasons brought out in 
the "Quail Capital" article in this and 
next month's Game and Fish Magazine, 
the only areas available for Commission 
leasing are forest areas, which prima- 
rily will have forest game hunting. On 
these areas. Commission game man- 
agement manipulation of the habitat 
must be consistent with the primary 
use of the areas by their owners: 
growing marketable timber. 

In future years, the Commission 
hopes to begin a program of actually 
purchasing land for hunting areas. On 
such areas, manipulation of the habitat 
to produce good hunting could be 
more easily accomplished. Control of 
the habitat is the key to game manage- 
mei '. Such areas would also be virtu- 
ally self-sustaining through the sale of 
timber grown on them. 

Alter the problem of finding a 
place to hunt, the second greatest 
problem concerning many hunters is 
declining bird hunting, especially quail, 
in the many areas of Georgia rapidly 
becoming forest or grass'and areas. 

Because of this, Commission game 
biologists are devoting more attention 
to finding a suitable woods game bird 
for Georgia as well as a good grassland 
or pasture game bird. Money from the 
license increase will be used to expand 

research and stocking programs which 
may succeed in establishing such birds 
in Georgia. 

Because of the shortage of game bi- 
ologists in the Game and Fish Com- 
mission's ranks during recent lean 
years, the Department has had little 
time to devote to extension work with 
landowners who wish to improve hunt- 
ing, especially small game, on their 
own lands. With license increase funds, 
it will be possible for the first time to 
hire an adequate number of game bi- 
ologists to institute such a program on 
the same scale now available to private 
pond owners. The efforts of the biolo- 
gists will be especially valuable to land- 
owners in improving quail hunting. 

In addition to extension service 
work with landowners, the additional 
game biologists are needed to help ex- 
pand research into a wide number of 
investigations designed to find the an- 
swers for improving Georgia's hunting. 
During the coming year, game biolo- 
gists will begin work on 1 1 different 
and far-reaching research projects. 

To assist extension services to land- 
owners, one project will be initiated to 
study and make information available 
on small game management techniques 
for increasing quail, rabbit, squirrel, 
dove, and other populations on private 
land. Yet another study will attempt to 
determine what predators, if any, 
harm wildlife populations and how 
great is the damage by them on both 
small and big game. 

Several studies will be continued 
in the field of deer management. One 
investigation almost completed will show 
the breeding dates of deer throughout 
the entire state to help the Commission 
in setting deer hunting seasons, as well 
as indicating whether deer herds are 
decreasing or increasing. 

Biologists are now planning to pur- 
chase small radio transmitting units for 
attaching to deer during a managed 
hunt to evaluate the movements of 
deer while being hunted. Another proj- 
ect will attempt to determine what the 
crippling loss of deer is using various 
types of weapons and hunting meth- 

In addition to these many research 
tasks, the new biologists will be as- 
signed to help the wildlife habitat pro- 
grams of other governmental agencies, 
including the U.S. Forest Service. Soil 
Conservation Service. ASCS, Coopera- 
tive Extension Service, and the Geor- 
gia Forestry Commission. For exam- 
ple, one study is now in progress I \ 
the Game and Fish Commission to 
evaluate the effects of the Small Wa- 
tershed Program on wildlife 

Wouldn't you sa\ that all these many 
programs are worth paying a dollar a 
year more tor the wonderful privilege 
of enjoying better hunting in Georgia? 







By Dean Wohlgemuth 










Top left: Trigger-happy gunner takes out his wrath of not finding any game on a Nation 
Forest sign. He probably needs target practice all right, but this isn't the place. Not on 
is it destructive to public property, but a car might come around the curve just as I 
fires and the bullet may be deflected toward the car. 

Top right: Watch those muzzles! Walking side by side, these careless hunters sudden, 
realized with horror and shocked surprise, that they were staring down the muzzles < 
each other's weapon. 

Center left: When two hunters are together, this is the proper way to get across. If eac 
crawled through, taking their own guns with them, there would be a very great likelihoc 
one of them might he shot accidentally. 

Center right: Hunting by himself, this hunter is risking a blast hitting him square as h 
pulls the gun through after him. Properly, lie should have opened the action of the gu> 
laid it carefully on the other side, then crawled through. 

Bottom left: Alcohol and gunpower can make a very explosively deadly combinatioi 
Senses dulled by alcohol breed many deadly mistakes afield. When there are firearn 
about, there's no place for alcohol. 

Pick a newspaper — any newspaper. 
Chances are good you'll find a story 
of a violent death. Death may be by 
any of dozens of available methods 
and tools. Nonetheless, you can bet 
that in the story's wake, there'll be a 
flood of editorials, crying for firearms 

Now, this article is not being writ- 
ten for the purpose of arguing pro or 
con on gun legislation. But, with hunt- 
ing seasons getting into full swing, it's 
a good time to look into the gun situa- 
tion, and the dangers involved with 

Forget about murders and concen- 
trate on gun accidents. Every year 
there are tragedies in the woods. If all 
sportsmen were as careful as they 
should be, there would be no need at 
all for any deaths or injuries while 

Then too, not all shooting or gun 
accidents happen in the woods. Fre- 
quently you'll see a story in the paper 
about a child that was killed when 
playing with his father's gun. 

Is the gun a killer? Is it the real 
culprit in these cases? Just how deadly 
is a gun? 

The old saws have it that a chain is 
no stronger than its weakest link, that 
a football team is no better than its 
quarterback, and you could go on and 
on. Now, let's write one for gun own- 
ers — the gun is no more deadly (or 
safe) than its owner. 

One thing you can bet on — that 
gun didn't climb down from its place 
on the rack on the wall, insert a car- 
tridge into its own chamber, aim it- 
self, and pull its own trigger. In each 
instance, there was at least one person 
responsible, in some way or other, in 
the firing of the gun. 

Guns cannot kill unless they are 
loaded, their muzzles are aimed and 
their triggers pulled. The gun. without 
a person's hand upon it, is as harmless 
as a bottle of milk. It's just an inert 
piece of metal and wood, incapable of 
thinking or doing anything. 

For years they've been saying that 
about cars. It's about time people be- 
gan to think along the same lines when 
it comes to guns. 

Accidents in the home are complete- 
ly inexcusable. When they happen, you 
can be sure that the gun owner either 
never bothered to learn the basic rules 
oi gun safety, or else he just ignores 

So let's get down to a bare begin- 

ning. The first thing anyone should do 
or think about when he touches a gun 
is that the weapon is due respect. It 
was made to kill. But to be a killer, it 
needs man. By itself it is only half the 

Always treat every gun as though it 
were loaded, until you have checked 
and know for sure that it is not. Even 
after making sure, just as a matter of 
good habits and further safety, never 
point that gun toward anything you 
don't want to shoot. 

When you read of a youngster that 
killed himself or his brother or sister 
with a loaded gun at home, there is 
always one important fact that is 
omitted in the story — the owner of 
the gun or the last person to use it, 
left the weapon loaded. 

Many people feel that for home 
safety purposes, it's useless to have the 
gun unloaded. Do they ever stop to 
think of the risks involved? Especially 
if they have young children? 

It doesn't take that long to load a 
gun, if indeed you really do need it 
loaded. The sight of a gun in a per- 
son's hand would make most any in- 
truder think a second time before do- 
ing anything foolish. 

As opposed to the need for using a 
gun for home protection, consider the 
likelihood of a youngster picking up a 
gun in your house. I'll wager for every 
time a gun is needed to protect a home, 
there are 10.000 times that a person 
other than the owner of said gun, 
picks up a weapon to look at it. If 
that person is a child, he'll pull the 
trigger. Maybe even an adult hunter 
will do the same. 

The moral of this part of the story 
is short, simple, but very very impor- 

Of ill hunting accidents actually in 
the field, one of the biggest causes is 
this one: the shooter failed to make 
certain of his target before pulling the 

The same story is told over and 
over again. The hunter just had a cou- 
ple of days to hunt. This might be his 
onl\ chance for a shot at big game all 
year. He got over-anxious and when 
he saw a movement, he was SURE he 
saw antlers. The "antlers" turned out 
to be small limbs above the head of 
another hunter. 

I hen there is the guy who climbed 

a fence, with his companion beside 
him. The safety of the gun was off, 
and the guy held the gun in hand while 
climbing across. A twig, the fence, 
something caught the trigger. 

Or else he leaned against a fence 
post. Or laid it down. But he forgot to 
open the action first. 

That gun can't fire, if its action is 
open. This is a cardinal rule that all 
hunters must be aware of at all times. 
No matter if it's a single shot, pump, 
bolt, lever, double barrel or whatever. 
If that action is open, the gun cannot 
he fired. When crossing fences, or 
crossing or going through anything 
difficult or risky, open the gun's action. 

There's another point that needs to 
be brought out, and here's just as good 
a place as any to insert it. Many peo- 
ple are of the opinion that a high- 
powered rifle used for big game is 
more dangerous from a hunter-safety 
standpoint than is a shotgun. 

Have you ever seen a person that's 
been hit with a shotgun at short 
range? If you do, you'll never forget 
it. Nothing, believe this, NOTHING is 
more deadly in the way of firearms at 
close range, than a shotgun. 

Why? Simply because it spreads out 
its shot into a wide pattern. With a 
solid hit, it injures a much larger area. 
Injury is usually more severe. A single 
bullet may miss a vital area, while a 
shotgun blast covers a wide area, in- 
cluding vital spots. 

So within 100 yards, the shotgun 
loaded with many pellets, is by far the 
most dangerous. The slug loaded gun 
is similar to the rifle, except that the 
slug is much larger and— at that short 
range - more deadly than a rifle 

Beyond a hundred yards, the rifle is 
more dangerous than a shotgun. But 
the chances of being hit at that dis- 
tance are far less. A gun aimed just a 
degree or two to the side of an object 
can miss by several inches, even feet, 
at any great distance. 

Statistics prove that most shooting 
accidents happen well within the 100 
yards we've been talking about. 

Here is something else well worth 
passing on. leach boys how t.> 
PROPERLY handle guns when t 
are young. Teach them to give guns 
due respect. They'll never forget. 

Teach them to enjoy the great out- 
ol doors and they'll never forget that 
either. And they won't be juvenile de- 



By Dean Wohlgemuth 

Slow, careful, very quiet strokes with one or two paddles can move a small boat almost silently through the water. In marshes, 
swamps and tidal waters, this works well in jumping ducks, just around the next bend. 

To get at wood ducks, you have 

to get where the wood duck 

lives. That means getting on some 

waders and sloshing through the 

thick swamps. Thick timber makes 

shooting fast and tricky. 

The boy, small for his age at 16, 
crept quietly as possible across the 
grain field, below the small dam. The 
water on the pond was out of sight. 

From the road, some quarter of a 
mile distant, there had been a few 
dark spots on the water. Ducks! 

The heavy old double barrel 12 
gauge, outside hammers and all, was 
clutched firmly in the boy's hands. In 
the twin tubes were heavy loads, num- 
ber sixes. 

At last the long stalk to the dam 
was completed. Hearing nothing after 
a short pause to suck in his breath as 
soundlessly as he could, the boy began 
carefully climbing up the dam, keeping 
as low to the ground as he could. Then, 
at the instant he reached the top of 
the dam, hammers back on the ancient 
double, he burst to his feet. 

There was a startled reaction from 
the ducks. They recovered quickly and 
bounced into the air, perhaps six or 
eight of them. 

The boy drew a bead on the closest 
greenhead drake and let blast his modi- 
fied barrel. As the duck fell, he was 
already swinging toward another duck! 
Bam! A double! 

One of the birds had fallen out into 
the water, badly wounded, barely able 
to move. Off came the boy's shoes, 
pantlegs were rolled up, and the boy 
waded into the icy water. It was shal- 
low for quite a distance, and at last 
he was able to capture the duck, but 
only after another shot, which was re- 
quired to dispatch the mallard. 

Happily, he grabbed up his quarry, 
gun and shoes, and walked back to his 
sld jalopy, parked on the country road, 
)ut of sight of the pond. 

He loaded the gun and ducks into 
he trunk of the car, put on his shoes 
ind slid under the steering wheel. His 
lantlegs were wet. Well, he thought. 
'11 hear from mother about that. 

He was on his way home from school. 
Living in a small country community 
far from a high school, he had to drive 
1 2 miles a day each way. During duck 
season it always took longer to get 
home because he knew by taking the 
back roads he could pass at least six 
ponds. And with luck, half of them or 
more would have ducks on them. 

Occasionally he'd get home with his 
limit or at worst, several ducks. Then 
it didn't matter what was said about 
getting his school clothes wet or 
muddy. Nothing could dampen his 
spirit then. 

In his mind, the boy pictured the 
day when he would be a man. Some- 
day, he thought, I'll have a blind on a 
good duck hunting lake where ducks 
are plentiful. I'll have a spread of de- 
coys, and a nice, new pump shotgun. 
Just watch me then! 

Quite a few years have passed. 
Other methods of hunting ducks have 
all been given a try. A shiny new auto- 
matic is on the rack of the wall. None- 
theless, with nostalgia, I recall those 
boyhood duck hunts fondly and if 
given a choice, I'd go back to jump 
shooting ducks on the ponds before 
hunting them any other way. 

Don't get me wrong, I enjoy sitting 
in a blind, even though the wind is icy 
and my feet are freezing. Duck hunt- 
ing is c te of my very favorite forms of 
recreation. Alas, it's now harder to 
come by, with diminishing waterfowl 
populations in recent years. 

Mention duck hunting and your au- 
dience will probably picture a stool (or 
spread) of decoys in front of a blind. 
This is the popular conception of what 
duck hunting is all about. But there is 
more than one way to shoot a duck. 

Jump shooting is not only the sim- 
plest v\ay. it's often the most produc- 
tive. The action certainly is fastest, at 
least most of the time. 

Blind shooting can be slow in blue- 

bird weather, but you might still find 
some ducks in streams and potholes 
when the sun insists on shining dis- 
gustingly bright. 

Just because there are good flights 
of ducks overhead does not insure that 
there will be plenty of action in the 

Three ingredients are important to 
blind shooting. They are decoys, blinds 
and calls. You've got to get the ducks 
in to you, and to do this you need 
something to attract them. This means 
you need to have a good set for your 
duck decoys. There must be an appro- 
priate number of block, (or decoys), 
and they must be set in such a fashion 
so as to look natural. 

On large water, for example, a small 
handful of decoys probably won't be 
enough to get much notice. On the 
other hand, if you're hunting potholes 
for mallards, a small puddle filled with 
three dozen decoys could tell Mr. 
Mallard Leader that there isn't enough 
room or food for his flock. 

The basic purpose behind using de- 
coys is to make passing ducks feel se- 
cure in stopping over at your area. 
The stool must be made to look as if 
ducks were feeding and resting. To my 
way of thinking, this means most of 
the blocks should be along the edge of 
weeds and food plants, rather than just 
sitting out in open water. But don't get 
the decoys so far into the grass that 
they can't be seen. 

Further, when laying out your stool, 
leave an opening of water near your 
blind where the ducks can land. Some 
hunters like to set their blocks in a sort 
ot question mark pattern, with 
open water in front of them, surrounc 
ing the small pool with decoys. Others 
sel i hem in something of a doughnut 
shape, with the open water in the cen- 
ter. Still others prefer to set their 
blocks in a V shape, a natural position 
for flying ducks. 


Against a background of the dark, early morning sky, this skilled caller sends out notes 
that moo a flock of ducks toward his decoys. 

Decoy sets should be arranged so 
that incoming ducks will head into the 
spread from downwind. That is, they'll 
be flying upwind when they head into 
your stool. So a V pattern stool should 
be set with the point of the V facing 
into the wind. Always set the blocks 
so they're faced into the wind. 

Another important factor in blind 
shooting is the blind itself. It must 
blend in with the natural setting. It 
must be solid enough to hide your 
movements, and your shining upturned 
face as you scan the sky. Yet, you 
must be able to see out of it, so a flock 
won't sneak up on you — or a high 
flying flock will pass you by unno- 
ticed, unattracted to your stool with- 
out a call. 

This brings us to the other ingredi- 
ent. Calling ducks is an art which few 
have really mastered. If you're not 
outstanding with a call, it might pay 
to leave it pretty much alone most of 
the time, except when the flork is high- 
ly unlikely to pay your stool any at- 
tention anyway. 

By all means, don't get carried 

away with the music in your soul when 

mouthing a duck call. Too much calling 

is worse than none at all. If you had 

.: good thing going for you, would you 

anxious to call in every person in 

'nicks will let others know if 

^ave found food and safety, but 

go overboard in inviting 


To attract the flying ducks' atten- 
tion, the loud, rapid "highball" call is 
used. Once your quarry has noticed 
your call and your decoys, go into the 
chuckling feeding call. This is the one 
that bungs them in to you. Too much 
loud, fast, excited calling will make 
them suspicious. If ducks on the water 
' excited, it tells others that 
safe thereabouts. 

One of the popular forms of duck 
hunting in Georgia — and rightly so — 
is another type of jump shooting. The 
difference is that a boat is used. It 
might also be referred to as drift shoot- 

The hunter drifts down a river and 
jumps ducks as he goes around a bend, 
getting in some good shots on each 

Too. this type of duck hunting is 
very popular in coastal tidal creeks 
and rivers, and in swampy areas in 
south Georgia. Here, of course, the 
boat won't drift too much. You'll have 
to paddle very quietly, preferably using 
the old Indian sculling method, or use 
a long pole to push the boat along. 

If you're after the wood duck. 
Georgia's most prominent waterfowl 
species, the method of poling or pad- 
dling a boat is best in flooded wood 
areas, although some hunters wade the 
shallow water with chest waders. 

You'll hear duckhunters talk of pass 
shooting quite often, too. But you'll 
seldom see it done. This is a method of 
finding a plrce on an oft-used flyway 
to and from a feeding or roosting area, 
perhaps between a grain field and a 
large body of water. Most of the shots 
are long, and the birds are moving fast 
and rather high. It's tough shooting. 

The jump shooter, float shooter or 
the man who shoots over decoys 
doesn't really need magnum loads and 
rarely will he need a full choke. A 
modified choke is better for most of 
the work he'll do. 

II a man who hunts over blocks 
is doing it right, he won't have to take 
main long shots. He should be patient 
enough to wait until the birds are all 
well in range. He shouldn't blast at the 
first duck that approaches just as it 
gets in range, but wait until all the birds 
are even with him. or perhaps even 

settling into the water. That way, he 
can get several shots. And if he's on the 
ball, he'll have his blind close enough 
to his decoys so that a modified choke 
will be tight enough. 

There may be times when a full 
choke is necessary over blocks, when 
the decoys need to be a little farther 
from the blind, or when the ducks are 
just a little too nervous to come in 
close. And the jump shooter, too, may 
occasionally find the majority of his 
shots are at longer range. Perhaps 
these things are the reasons why 
double barrels have long been among 
the most popular guns of duck hunters, 
since they are usually equipped with 
a modified choke in one barrel and a 
full choke on the other. 

Sizes of shot to use on ducks is a 
point of argument. I like number sixes 
for most situations, but a lot of fives, 
even fours are used. For longer range 
shots, the larger shot sizes usually 
work better. Over decoys, especially 
on smaller species, some hunters even 
use IVi shot. 

Expert hunters sometimes say that 
small shot penetrates feathers much 
better at very short range, no more 
than 30 yards. Beyond that, however, 
small shot sheds its velocity rapidly, 
and just isn't very deadly. 

Any way you want to hunt them, 
you can't find much better sport than 
duck hunting. And when the day is 
over and you sit by the fire, drying 
out your socks, you'll get a whiff of 
roast duck coming from the kitchen. 
There's a meal fit for a king coming 
up. And at the moment, you feel sort 
of like a king. 

Attention: Executives 

A n Ideal Christmas Gift . . . 

subscriptions to Game and 
Fish for business associates 
and employees. 

Saves Time . . . send us 
your list with names and 
addresses. Each one will 
receive a gift card in 
your name. 


Make checks payable to 

Georgia Game and Fish 

401 State Capitol Bide 
Atlanta 30301 






Southeast Ga. Season-Oct. 29, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the following 

Brantley, Bryan, Bulloch, Burke, Cam- 
den, Candler, Charlton, Chatham, Clinch 
County south of the Atlantic Coastline 
Railroad and east of the run of Suwanoo- 
chee Creek, Echols County east of U. S. 
129 and south of Ga. 187, Effingham, 
Emanuel north of U. S. 80, Evans, Glas- 
cock, Glynn, Jefferson, Jenkins, Liberty, 
Long, Mcintosh, Pierce County south of 
U. S. 82 and east of Ga. 121, Screven, 
Tattnall, Washington and Wayne counties. 
Bag Limit— Two (2) Bucks. Hunting with 
dogs is allowed in all of the above counties. 


Season-Oct. 15, 1966 through Feb. 28, 


Bag Limit— 3 Daily, possession limit 6. 


Season-Oct. 15, 1966 through Feb. 28, 


Bag Limit- 10 Daily. 


Season-Oct. 29, 1966 through Feb. 28, 
1967, Exception: Coweta County opens 
Oct. 1, 1966 through Jan. 21, 1967. 
No Bag Limit. 

N. Ga. Season-Oct. 29, 1966 through Feb. 
28. 1967. 

Bag Limit— One ( 1 ) per night per person. 
5. Ga. Season— No closed season. 
No Bag Limit. 



Season— Sept. 15 through Nov. 23, 1966. 
Bag Limit— 15 Daily, possession limit 30. 



Southwest Ga. Season— Nov. 5, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the following 

Baker, Calhoun, Chattahoochee, Deca- 
tur, Dougherty, Early, Grady, Lee County 
west of U. S. 19, Marion, Mitchell. Mus- 
cogee, Seminole, Stewart, Terrell, Thomas, 
Webster and Worth County south of U. S. 

Bag Limit- Two (2) Bucks, except in 
Baker, Calhoun, Grady, Dougherty, and 
Thomas counties where the bag limit is 
two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one 
(1) doe. Exception: The Worth County 
bag limit shall be one ( 1 ) buck only for 
the season. 

Hunting with dogs will be allowed in 
all of the counties listed above during the 
season with the exception of Chattahoo- 
chee, Muscogee, and Worth counties, where 
hunting with dogs will be prohibited in 
order to prevent over-harvest of deer and 
to insure continued growth of the deer 

North and Middle Ga. Season— Nov. 5, 
1966 through Nov. 28, 1966 in the fol- 
lowing counties: 

Banks County east of U. S. 441, Bald- 
win, Bartow County south of the Etowah 
River west of U. S. 41, Butts, Columbia, 
Crawford County north of U. S. 80, Daw- 
son, Fannin, Floyd County east of U. S. 
27 and north of U. S. 411, Gilmer County 
west of U. S. 76 and southwest of Ga. 52 
and southeast of the Big Creek Gap Road 
to the Fannin County Line, Green, Haber- 
sham County west of U. S. 23 and south 
of Ga. 17 south of Hollywood, Hancock, 
Haralson, Henry, Jasper, Jones, Lamar, 
Lincoln, Lumpkin, McDuffie, Monroe, 
Morgan, Murray, Newton, Oglethorpe 
County south of U. S. 78, Paulding, Polk 
County east of U. S. 27 and south of U. S. 
278, Putnam, Rabun, Richmond, Rockdale, 
Schley, Stephens County south of U. S. 
123 and west of Ga. 17 north of Toccoa, 
Talbot, Taliaferro, Towns, Union, War- 
ren, White, Walton, Wilkinson, and Wilkes 
County east of Ga. 47 and sojth of U. S. 

Bag Limit— Two (2) Bucks, except that in 
order to harvest a bumper crop of deer, 
Jasper, Jones, Monroe, Putnam and Mc- 
Duffie counties will be open for either-sex 
deer Hinting on the last day of the regular 
season, Nov. 28, 1966, with a bag limit of 
no more than one ( 1 ) doe deer. The regu- 
lar season bag limits will also apply dur- 
ing this period, provided that no gun 
hunter during the entire year may take 
more than two (2) bucks or one (1) buck 
and one ( 1 ) doe by any method or 

Deer hunting with dogs is prohibited in 
all of the above listed counties, and it is 
illegal to run, chase, or pursue deer with 
dogs in any of these counties. 


West Central Ga. Season-Now 5, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the counties of 

Chattahoochee, Marion, Muscogee, Stew- 
art, and Talbot. 

Bag Limit— One ( 1 ) per season. 
Southwest Ga. Season— Nov. 19, 1966 
through Feb. 28, 1967 in the counties of 
Baker, Calhoun, Decatur, Dougherty, Early, 
Grady, Miller, Mitchell, Seminole, and 
Bag Limit— Two (2) per season. 


Season-Nov. 19, 1966 through Feb. 28, 


Bag Limit— 12 Daily, possession limit 36. 


Season-Nov. 19, 1966 through Feb. 28, 


N. Ga. Bag Limit-5 Daily. 

S. Ga. Bag Limit-\0 Daily. 


Season— Nov. 7, 1966 through January 15, 

Bag Limit— 2 daily, possession limit 4. See 
federal regulations. Migratory stamp re- 
quired. Liberty and Mcintosh counties 


Season— Nov. 24, 1966 through January 7, 

Bag Limit— Ducks: 4 daily, including no 
more than 2 wood ducks or 2 canvasbacks. 
Possession limit 8, including no more than 
4 wood ducks or 4 canvasbacks. Mergans- 
ers: 5 daily, including no more than 1 
hooded merganser. Possession limit is 10, 
including no more than 2 hooded mer- 
gansers. Coots: 10 daily, possession limit 
is 20. See federal waterfowl regulations 
available with the required $3.00 federal 
migratory bird (duck) stamp at all main 
U. S. Post Offices. State regulations for 
waterfowl hunting are the same as the 
federal regulations. 



Southeast Ga. Season— Dec. I. I 966 through 
Jan. 5, 1967 in the counties of Bran 1 
ley, Bryan, Bulloch, Camden. Charli; 
Chatham, Effingham, Evans, Glynn. ' 
erty, Long. Mcintosh. Pierce. 
Tattnall, and Wayne. 
Bag limit— One (1) turkey gobbler 
season. Hens are protected. 


Season- Dec. 12 through Jan. 30, 1967. 
Bag Limit 5 Daily, possession limit 10. 
See federal regulations. 

I owe 
all to 

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Factual up-to-date information on the best hunting 
and fishing. Tips on how to make the most of your 
sporting activities. 

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VOL 1, NO. 3 /DECEMBER, 1966 




Volume I Number 3 


Drifting Doves Joe Kight 1 

The Dove Season Is Too Late Jim Morrison 3 

Bushy Tails Are For Boys James T. Hicks 6 

Oaky Woods is Okay Dean Wohlgemuth 7 

Small Game — 

Hunter's Choice Dean Wohlgemuth 8 

Mark Trail of the Mounties . . . Jim Morrison 10 

800,000 Busy Eyes . . . Jim Tyler 12 

Commissioner Charles Davidson Jim Tyler 13 

The Quail Capital of the World Jim Morrison 14 

Georgia Sportsmen Meet in Macon Glen Smith 16 

Sportsman's Calendar 17 

Carl E. Sanders 


Judge Harley Langdale, Leonard Bassford, 

Chairman Vice Chairman 

Valdosta-8th District Augusta- 10th District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. Charles L. Davidson, Jr. 

Newnan-6th District Avondale Estates-4th District 

James Darby Rankin M. Smith 

Vidalia-lst District Adanta-5th District 

Richard Tift J. B. Langford 

Albany-2nd District Calhoun-7th District 

William E. Smith Edgar B. Dunlap 

Americus-3rd District Gainesville-9th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



Howard D. Zeller Jack A. Crockiord 

Program Planning Field Operations 


Leon Kirkland, Fisheries Charles M. Frisbie, 

Hubert Handy, Game Marine Fisheries 

Robert S. Baker, Law Enforcement Jim Morrison, Information and 


C. V. Waters, Gainesville, N. Ga. Frank Parrish, Fitzgerald, S. Ga. 

Wayne W. Thomaston, 
Fort Valley, M. Ga. 

David Gould, Brunswick, Coast 


Jnn Morrison, Editor 

Dean Wohlgemuth, 

Managing Editor 

Dan Keever, Photographer 

Jim Tyler, Staff Writer 
Glenn Smith, Staff Writer 

Photo Credits: Dan Keever 1, t. 2, t. 5, t. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, t. 11, 12, t. 
& b. 13, t. 14, 16; Jim Morrison b. 2, 3, b. 5, b. 6, b. 11, c. & b. 13. 

Georgia Game and Fish is the official monthly magazine of the Geor- 
gia Game and Fish Commission, published at the Commission's of- 
fices, 401 State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia 30.134, No advertising ac- 
cepted. Subscriptions arc $1 for one year or $2.50 for three years. 
Printed by Stein Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of ad- 
dress change must include both old and new address and ZIP code, 
with 30 days notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without 
ZIP code. Articles and photographs may be reprinted. Proper credit 
should be given. Contributions are welcome, but the editors assume 
no responsibility or liability for loss or damage of articles, photo- 
graphs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Georgia. 

A governor who wasn't afraid 

Georgia's dynamic young governor, Carl Sanders, is 
a man who is not afraid to stand up and be counted 
for a cause which he feels is right, even though it 
may be potentially unpopular. 

It is for this reason that we dedicate the last issue 
of Georgia Game and Fish this year to Governor San- 
ders in the last month of his historic four year term 
in office. 

During that time, Governor Sanders did more for 
the cause of wildlife conservation than any other man 
in Georgia history. Primarily at his request, the Gen- 
eral Assembly this year increased the budget of the 
Game and Fish Commission from two million to more 
than three million dollars a year, the largest increase 
ever made in its appropriation. That Governor Sanders 
had the courage to make the increase possible by helping 
raise hunting and fishing license fees is a noteworthy 
tribute to the strength of his convictions. 

As a result of the one million dollar increase, wild- 
life conservation for the first time in many years in 
Georgia is adequately financed. Now, the State Game 
and Fish Commission can afford to staff and manage 
every acre of public hunting and fishing land that it 
can lease or purchase. Public fishing areas will be 
built in many areas of the State, and more than 200 
public boat launching ramps will be constructed over 
the next five years on previously inaccessible streams 
and lakes. The eight fish hatcheries of the Game and 
Fish Commission will be renovated and modernized to 
produce millions of new fish for stocking in public 
lakes and streams. 20 new wildlife rangers are already 
on duty, protecting Georgia's invaluable wildlife re- 
sources from plunder by ruthless game law violators. 
These rangers are now better trained, better equipped, 
and better uniformed, than ever before in history. 

Early in the Sanders Administration, the Governor 
provided funds for the purchase of the largest channel 
catfish hatchery in the world at Cordele for the Com- 
mission, along with the purchase of the McDuffie 
Public Fishing area near Thomson, first of a chain of 
such areas to ring Georgia's metropolitan centers. 

During his administration, more than 132,000 acres of 
public hunting land were leased to the Game and Fish 
Commission in the Allatoona, Whitesburg, Chickasaw- 
hatchee, Piedmont Experiment, and Oaky Woods game 
management areas. His sponsorship of a limited lia- 
bility bill eventually will open more than a million ad- 
ditional acres of industrial lands for hunting. 

But Governor Sanders' most important accomplish- 
ment probably is his initiation of a reorganization of 
the leadership of the State Game and Fish Commission 
along the more efficient, decentralized, professional 
lines recommended by the study of the department 
made at his request by the Governor's Commission for 
Efficiency and Improvement in Government, known 
as the "Bowdoin Commission." 

As an avid hunter and fisherman all his life, Gov- 
ernor Sanders shares many interests in common with 
Georgia sportsmen. He is a crack shot who especially 
enjoys dove and quail shooting, and is a deer and a 
duck hunter as well. 

If we could select a nominee for the title "Wildlife 
Conservationist of the Year" for this year or any year 
so far, our choice would be Carl Sanders, a great 
governor that Georgians will miss. — J. M. 

ON THE COVER: Georgia's number one dove shooter, 
Governor Carl Sanders, fires a volley at the star of this 
month's Game and Fish Magazine, the mourning dove. 
Photo by Jim Morrison. 

by joe kight 


Doves are perhaps the hardest easy shooting 
or the easiest hard shooting of any of Georgia's 
game birds. They can float in as though they 
were suspended from wires, or bobble along 
like a butterfly with the hiccups, or flash by 
like an unguided missile. Weighing only four or 
five ounces, they can cruise between 30 to 40 
miles per hour in calm air. Alarmed by hunters 
or traveling with the wind they can, 
of course, go much faster. 
More people in Georgia hunt doves than 
any other game bird. In most areas a dove 
shoot takes on a festive air. Although the 
weather is usually a little warm, especially in 
the southern regions, a different smell is in the 
air. The languid murky feel of summer is 
replaced with a crisper, cleaner feel. The harvest 
is underway, denoting the end of one 
season and the beginning of another. 
Some of the poplar and gum trees are 
hinting that they are thinking 
seriously of exchanging 
their summer suits for a 
bright colorful gown for one last fling. 
What is probably the most noted 
and least mentioned is the sounds 
of the fields. The rustle of 
the corn stalks, the caw of a faraway 
crow, the chirr of insects — especially 
the sound of the insects all take on 
an eleventh hour feel of expectancy. 
Dove season is anticipated by 
some from January when the season 
closed, to the opening day o* th< 
season. The time in betwe 

dates serves only to round out 

the calendar and also provides time 

to catch an oc tsional fish. 

In case you're in doubt, that blur is a mourning dove, the 
hardest to hit game bird in Georgia. Last year more than 
1 12,000 hunters went after doves. 

Hunting from a home-made blind of 

stalks and pine boughs is especially 

popular in middle Georgia. It pays 

with closer shots and clean ground for 

locating downed birds quickly. 

Doves are found throughout the 
state. While we have a large resident 
nesting population, many birds found 
here during the late fall and winter 
were raised in states to the north. The 
nest is a very frail affair that is more 
of a platform than the cup-shaped 
nests of songbirds. The usual clutch 
consists of two eggs. Doves have been 
known to nest in South Georgia every 
month of the year except December. 
Although each brood is small, produc- 
tion continues throughout the nesting 
season. Five to seven broods are start- 
ed by each pair per year, but nest mor- 
tality accounts for about half of the 
young birds. Three successful broods 
of two birds each are about average. 

Hunting doves requires very little 
equipment and a minimum of effort. 
Dull colored clothes which blend with 
the background will do very well al- 
though camouflage clothes are usually 
harder to detect. However, don't for- 
get that an upturned face will shine 
like a full moon, so keep your head 
down until the birds are in range. A 
long billed cap will help. 

A wide variety of shotguns are used, 
but repeaters in 12, 16, or 20 gauge 
are the most popular. An improved 
cylinder or modified choke is quite 
adequate. Although a full choked gun 
has a greater range, probably not more 
than one person in ten can shoot this 
choke efficiently. Size IVi to 9 shot are 
large enough. Most guns seem to pat- 
tern these smaller shot better than 
larger shot. However, each gun will 
shoot a little differently, so it is a good 
idea to pattern your gun with different 
shot sizes to determine which is best 
for you and your gun. 

Doves are strict vegetarians that re- 
quire free water. Although quail can 
get enough water from dew and suc- 
culent foods, doves must have water 
to drink. This is especially needed dur- 

ing nesting season to manufacture "pi- 
geon milk" which is fed to the young. 
Good shooting can be had at a water- 
ing hole when dry weather forces the 
birds to concentrate on a few available 
watering places. 

A more dependable place to shoot is 
over a harvested grain field. Millet, 
corn, wheat, peanuts, peas, and grain 
sorghums are choice foods, as are wa- 
termelon and tomato seeds. The ob- 
ject is to provide a choice food supply 
and conditions that are attractive to 
doves. Bare ground between the rows 
is best, but a field with close cut stub- 
ble is good too. Doves are not scratch- 
ing birds and therefore have to find 
their food on top of the ground. In 
preparing a field for dove shooting, be 
sure to check the federal regulations. 
As doves are considered migratory, 
they are included in the migratory bird 
treaty act and are under federal regu- 
lation. A lot of people find it hard to 
stop shooting when they have their 
limit and the birds are still coming in 
to the field. But bear in mind that if 
you want to go dove hunting next year 
and the next, and would like for your 
kids to enjoy this fine sport, stop shoot- 
ing when you have the limit. Too, both 
state and federal judges have been 
known to frown on game hogs. 

The secret of dove hunting, if there 
is one, is to keep still until the birds 
are well within range, follow through 
on your swing, and LEAD him. Per- 
haps the real secret of a successful hunt 
is the observance of one simple but 
"common sense" rule. Don't shoot at 
low flying birds! Picking shot out of 
your hide is not a pleasant way to 
spend the evening. Having a surgeon 
pick a shot from your eye is even more 
unpleasant. But to be on a field with 
good friends when the doves are start- 
ing to drift in is, as the man said, 
paradise enow. 

by Jim Morrison 


"It's just shameful, the way the State 
lets hunters go out and kill those little 
birds in September. Why, most of 
them are so small they can't hardly fly 
yet, and they're being slaughtered right 
and left. I even killed one bird that 
left an egg in my hunting coat. Shoot- 
ing birds still nesting, or that can't 
fly, and they call that conservation?" 

It doesn't really matter just who 
it is that's doing the talking, because 
almost exactly the same words have 
been said for many years by dove hunt- 
ers, especially in South Georgia. 

If, on the other hand, we were lis- 
tening to a fellow dove hunter in North 
Georgia, we probably would hear dif- 
ferent, but equally familiar words: 

"Those idiots in the State Capitol 
have done it again! Why can't they 
ever set the dove season right and leave 
it the same every year. By the time the 
season opened, all the birds had left 
out. We had plenty of birds two weeks 
ago, and now you can't find any." 

Confusing? You can say that again! 
Both of these viewpoints are based on 
valid arguments. And both are made bv 
sincere sportsmen interested in good 
dove shooting. Presumably, tin 
also good wildlife conservationists. 

In between these two warring fac- 
tions are the poor devils who are 
supposed to make everyone happv. in 
eluding the doves: the men of the State 
Game and Fish Commission. But set- 
tling the issue about the dove season 

is one problem with even more knots 
than the average burning issue facing 
a State wildlife conservation agency. 

To begin with, not all doves are born 
and raised in Georgia, although about 
70 per cent of them spend their en- 
tire lives here. Because of the migra- 
tory 30 per cent that flies into Georgia 
every year, and more especially be- 
cause of the doves that fly into the 
United States every year from Mexico 
and Canada, the dove has been de- 
clared a migratory bird under federal 
protection. Under treaty acts, doves 
and other migratory game birds such as 
ducks may only be hunted between 
September 1 and March 15 of each year. 

But even though the dove is protect- 
ed by federal law, it would be unfair 
to entirely "pass the buck" to the fed- 
eral government concerning the dove 
season, since both the states and the 
federal government share joint respon- 
sibility for the rules and regulations. 
These regulations are conservatively set 
to insure that the annual survival of 
the dove breeding population is well 
above the level needed each year to 
produce as many doves as possible for 
hunting, year after year. 

The federal government declares the 
"framework" for the dove season, 
meaning within what beginning and 
ending dates the states can set their 
seasons, including the number of days 
of shooting they can have. In addi- 
tion, the federal government sets up 
the maximum bag limit each state may 
have, along with regulations governing 
the hunting methods which may be 
used, such as shooting over baited 
fields, etc. 

These regulations are promulgated 
through the Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife of the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

The Bureau has established the 
framework for the dove season of Sep- 
tember 1 -January 15, with 70 half-days 
of shooting which could begin and end 
at any time between those dates within 
two or three consecutive shooting pe- 
riods, during which time the entire 
State would be open. The daily bag 
limit was set at 12 birds a day. 

As has been the custom for many 
yars, the State Game and Fish Com- 
rm ion again selected the option of a 
Mio ci ,,eason beginning earlier in Sep- 
:m i with a longer second half of the 
"split . ason" beginning later in De- 
cember, civier the existing restrictions 
placed on the states by the federal 
government, this pattern has been 
judged to he the best possible ar- 
rangement h Georgia's wildlife agen- 
cy. But is this arrangement satisfactory 
a majority ol hunters? If you think 
en read the comments again with 
li we began this story. These com- 

ments were made about the present 
system, and some of them are shared 
by the Game and Fish Commission. 

The federal regulations determine 
how liberal the seasons, bag limits, and 
hunting regulations can be that are set 
by Georgia. Actually, the state could 
set a shorter dove hunting season with 
a smaller bag limit and more restric- 
tive hunting regulations than is al- 
lowed by the federal government. It 
could not set a season longer than 
allowed by federal regulations, etc. 

Normally, the greatest concentration 
of birds in North Georgia is during the 
middle two weeks of September, at 
the time that brown top millet, milo, 
corn, and other early silage or hay 
crops are mature enough for cutting. 
During this period, the entire year's 
production of surviving young birds is 
at its greatest numerical peak, and the 
birds are more concentrated on the 
harvested fields than at any other time. 
Naturally, this is the time that North 
Georgia hunters want to shoot doves. 
Later on, when the crops have been 
harvested and cold weather moves in, 
shooting will be poor, except on a few 
scattered late corn fields that are har- 
vested with a mechanical picker. Many 
of the September birds will already 
have died at the hands of predators, 
disease, exposure, or parasites. 

Normally, dove shooting in North 
Georgia during the first half of the sea- 
son is over within two weeks. Shoot- 
ers are anxious for the legal opening of 
the season to coincide with this grain 
maturation date, which unfortunately 
may vary considerably, depending on 
rain and climate conditions. Browntop 
millet, for instance, can be planted 
anytime from May through July, ma- 
turing in six weeks. If rain coincides 
with cutting, the millet seeds soon 
germinate, and doves leave the field. 

But, suppose the season does hit the 
grain maturation right on the head. 
Even then, shooting may be poor. With 
the rapid increase of dairy and beef 
cattle farming in Georgia, the acreage 
of hay and silage crops grown has 
soared, especially in level terrain that 
can be worked by machinery on large 
farms. This has the effect of scattering 
doves over a much greater area, pro- 
ducing a general decline in the quality 
of shooting from the "good old days" 
when good dove fields were less com- 
mon, concentrating the birds more 
than is the case today even though just 
as many doves may be present now as 
then, if not more. Then, too, doves are 
an unpredictable lot, inclined to ignore 
ample food on one field and concen- 
trate on another that is identical a 
mile away, for no apparent reason. 

So, the North Georgian quite likely 
will complain about the season opening 
too late. 

But, what about the picture in South 
Georgia during the first season in Sep- 
tember? Here the complaints about 
birds unable to fly or still on the 
nest ring through the air, along with 
some more valid comments about the 
better shooting that will be had later 
in the year when the birds are not so 
scattered and food is less plentiful. Be- 
sides, the weather is usually unbear- 
ably hot for hunting, usually in the 90's, 
insects are still out in bloodthirsty 
droves, and snakes are still a nagging 
worry. But just the same, hunters who 
have impatiently survived the spring 
and summer are eager to get into the 
field again, and the dove season is their 
first opportunity, in spite of early sea- 
son objections. But undoubtedly the 
South Georgia hunter would prefer a 
season opening in October or later, 
when shooting is better on fields being 
planted to winter wheat or being har- 
vested late. 

By this time, the obviously perfect 
answer to this dilemma has undoubt- 
edly swept over you in a great wave 
of realization. It's so obvious, you 
can't help but wonder why it hasn't 
already been done. Why, you say, 
don't we just simply zone Georgia into 
a northern zone with a season opening 
in September and a southern zone 
opening in October or November? 

But throwing a bucket of cold water 
on this charming daydream is the Bu- 
reau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 
which refuses to consider such a plan 
on the grounds that it would almost 
double the number of days for Georgia 
shooters to hunt doves, possibly threat- 
ening the surviving brood stock with 
a serious reduction. According to the 
Bureau, if the state were zoned as has 
often been suggested, Georgians would 
expect 70 days of shooting in North 
Georgia and 70 days in South Georgia, 
giving us up to 140 days of shooting, as 
compared to the 70 given other states in 
the eastern management unit. Accord- 
ing to the Bureau, hunting pressure on 
doves would be greatly increased, per- 
haps doubled, by migration of hunters 
into North Georgia during the first 
zone season, followed by concentration 
of hunters in South Georgia during the 
second zone season, resulting in a much 
greater kill of birds, than the present 
figure of more than three million birds 
a year. However, this is only a the- 
ory, not a proven scientific fact. 

The Bureau says that if Georgians 
are concerned about killing young 
birds in South Georgia early in the 
split season and hunting doves in North 
Georgia late in the second season when 
they are scarce, then the state should 
be zoned by state regulations. 

For example, during the early first 
half of the season this year, from Sep- 

tember 9 through October 8, South 
Georgia could have been closed for 
hunting by State regulation. Then, dur- 
ing the second half of the split season, 
from December 6 through January 14, 
North Georgia could be closed by 
state regulation, if desired. 

However, the net effect of this plan 
would be that South Georgians would 
lose approximately 30 of their 70 half- 
days of shooting, and North Georgians 
would lose approximately 40 of their 
70 half-days. It is doubtful if Georgians 
would be willing to sacrifice hunting 
days in an already short season, merely 
to satisfy esthetic considerations about 
killing young birds. Such a situation 
well might produce many more com- 
plaints than are now heard. 

Biologists also point out some birds 
are still on the nest during the Sep- 
tember season, especially in South 
Georgia, but these birds are seldom 
killed on a field. Normally, they are 
still tending the nest and will not come 
to a harvested field, although some 
may be shot at an occasional water- 
hole. This is also one reason why birds 
are still scattered with poorer shooting 
in South Georgia during September. 

So, there are some good arguments 
on the side of the federal government 
c or leaving the regulations as they 
Dresently are, without zoning. But 
3eorgia's game biologists and many 
iove hunters believe that the discussion 
ioesn't end there. For one thing, there 
s considerable disagreement over the- 
ories of whether or not dove hunting 
pressure would be significantly in- 

creased if zoning were allowed with 70 
days of hunting in each section. Geor- 
gia's game biologists contend that few 
hunters would travel great distances to 
the other end of Georgia if they had a 
satisfactory season close at home. They 
point out that South Georgians could 
never find better shooting in North 
Georgia than what they would have at 
home under a later 70 half-day season 
of their own, and that both North 
Georgians and South Georgians would 
be diverted from dove shooting by 
other hunting seasons that are open in 
November, such as quail, squirrel, rab- 
bit, and deer hunting. As a result, they 
feel that only a small number of North 
Georgians would drive 200 miles or 
more to hunt doves in South Georgia 
for only half-a-day on the weekend, as- 
suming that Sunday hunting is not al- 
lowed. In addition, since dove shooting 
is normally found only on private land, 
few North Georgians would have good 
landowner contacts in the southern 
part of the state. Most landowners 
only invite their families, close friends, 
and neighbors to dove shoots. 

There is plenty of ammunition on 
both sides. At present, only Texas is 
allowed a zoned dove season, due to 
its great size. But, Georgians point out, 
Georgia is the largest state east of the 
Mississippi River. So far, the Bureau 
has held fast in its position. 

But even if zoning never becomes a 
reality in Georgia, it is sure to be a 
red-hot issue with Georgia hunters for 
as long as they still hunt "the grey 
ghost of the cornfields" 

Game biologist Jim 
Scharnagel records the 
band number on one of 
4,000 doves banded by 
the State so far this year. 
This information will help 
in justifying any changes 
in the present federal 

Dove shooting in North 
Georgia depends to a great 
extent on the date when 
grain crops such as milo 
ripen and are harvested, 
especially by mechanical 
methods. If the season 
opens after this period 
doves will be hard to find. 

The squirrel is hunted by more hunters than any other game species in Georgia. 

By James T. Hicks 


Shotguns are 
most commonly 
j used for squirrel 
hunting, but 
many hunters 
prefer .22 rifles. 

Fall is for bushytails, and for boys 
to go to the squirrel woods, and for 
grown men to pretend for a while that 
their youth has returned as they too go 
hunting Mr. Squirrel. 

Regrettably, most present day forest 
management does not provide the prac- 
tices that are most beneficial to the 
squirrel. Mast producing hardwoods 
such as oak and hickory are the key 
to an abundance of bushytails. Hollow 
trees, when present, serve as veritable 
squirrel factories. All too often neither 
the mast producing hardwoods nor the 
hollow trees are spared on areas of in- 
tensely managed forestlands. The terri- 
tory for good squirrel hunting has thus 
become limited. 

The best areas for hunting are patch- 
es of hardwoods that may be used by 
squirrels for feeding stations, den trees, 
and nesting sites. Fence rows are excel- 
lent if a stand of mature timber lies 

adjacent to a field of corn. Gray squir- 
rels prefer the hardwood forests of the 
valleys while the fox squirrel will be 
found in timbered areas with many 
openings especially in pecan orchards. 
There are several methods of hunt- 
ing Mr. Bushytail that may be used suc- 
cessfully. To still hunt, the hunter must 
locate a tree or group of trees that is 
being used for a feeding area or as a 
den. He must then conceal himself and 
remain very still until the squirrels ap- 
pear. Several squirrels may be taken 
from one tree or one area if the hunt- 
er will wait until he feels that the ac- 
tion is all over before picking up his 

Stalk hunting is probably the sport- 
iest method of all to use. Stalking 
may be done in a heavily wooded area 
and around the edges of fields or clear- 
ings. By advancing quietly, two or three 
steps at a time and then stopping to 
survey the trees in the area, the stalking 
hunter may effectively cover a larger 
territory than the still hunter. For any 
measure of success to be attained in 
this type hunting, the hunter must move 
very slowly, quietly, and observantly. 

A popular method of hunting in 
many areas is with a dog. A larger 
amount of territory may be covered 
with this style of hunting than either 
still hunting or stalking. The common 
mixed breed mongrel dog seems to be 
most efficient in squirrel hunting. 

The best time of day for hunting 
squirrels is early and late. Still, clear, 
frosty mornings and warm fall 
afternoons are ideal. Almost without 
exception, hunting is much better 
when the wind is not blowing. Damp 
leaves due to a rain or heavy dew are 
desirable because they lessen the noise 
made by the hunter"s feet. 

The .22 caliber rifle and all the va- 
rious gauges of shotguns are used for 
squirrel hunting. The .22 rifle is regard- 
ed by many hunters as the more sport- 
ing weapon to use. The use of a scope 
mounted .22 will provide a maximum 
of sport as well as a full bag if the 
hunter is skillful. Practically all of the 
shotguns are adequate with field loads 
of no. 6 shot. 

Drab colored or camouflage type 
clothing makes the hunter much less 
noticeable when in the woods. Water- 
proof boots will add greatly to the 
comfort of the hunter if wet weather 
is prevailing. 

One of the great values of squirrel 
hunting is the opportunity it presents 
to be afield and observe the beauty of 
nature. Do you remember when you 
went squirrel hunting as a boy and 
your Dad would shake a bush so that 
you could have a chance for a shot? 
Take your boy squirrel hunting, and re- 
member to shake a bush for him. 

by Dean Wohlgemuth 

Ray Plaster, area manager of 

the new Oaky Woods 
^Management Area near Perry, 

gets a birds-eye view of the 
b area under his charge from atop 

a fire tower located near the 

heart of his domain. 

Oaky Woods 
Is OK 

Folks living in the heart of Georgia 
have a brand new hunting management 
area to enjoy this season, thanks to 
Georgia Kraft Co.'s generous policy of 
leasing land to the State Game and 
Fish Commission for that purpose. 

This new area is a dandy, too. Open 
on a somewhat limited scale this first 
year, the area, named Oaky Woods 
Game Management Area, has very fine 
populations of quail and squirrel. 

Located in the heart of the state, 
Oaky Woods is about a half hour's 
drive from Macon, and two and a half 
hours from Atlanta. It's south and a 
little east of Macon. 

A huge, 17,000 acre tract was 
opened this year for small game hunt- 
ing on Wednesdays and Saturdays 
until Jan 28. The usual $1 fee for small 
game hunts on state-operated areas, 
applies to these hunts. 

"There are plenty of quail on the 
area," said Ray Plaster, who was given 
the position of area manager for Oaky 
Woods. "Recently, I found four cov- 

eys of quail in about an hour's time." 

Dick Whittington, supervisor of 
game for the middle Georgia Region of 
the Game and Fish Commission, con- 
firmed this. "In areas where timber has 
been cut, and there are a good supply 
of weeds, there is fine quail hunting 
for this type of habitat," he said. He 
pointed out that removal of timber 
left the forest floor open enough to 
grow cover and food for the birds. 
These areas are growing new timber, 
but the timber is small enough so 
as to allow good growth of food cover. 
He added that cutover areas also pro- 
vide excellent deer browse. 

An excellent squirrel population ex- 
ists in the area. There is a consider- 
able amount of hardwoods in Oaky 
Woods, particularly in swampy sections 
adjoining the Ocmulgee River. 

Hunting pressure was light early in 
the hunting season, possibly because 
the area is so new that it is as yet 
unknown to many hunters. 

Actually, Oaky Woods consists of 


lax Plaster, right, talks over how tilings arc going on Oaky Woods with James Denton 
>f Georgia Kraft Company. Georgia Kraft leased the land to the Game and Fish 
Commission to provide more places for the public to hunt. 

two parts. One part is a large block of 
1 7,000 acres. This is the area open this 
season for managed small game hunts. 
Eventually it will be opened for deer 
hunting. The area was stocked with 
deer four years ago under federal aid, 
and cannot be opened for deer hunts 
until at least five years after stocking. 

The other part of the area consists 
of 15,000 acres in scattered tracts. Al- 
though not opened this season, this part 
of the area will eventually be opened 
as a public hunting area. Hunters will 
be allowed to hunt small game in sea- 
son on this part, without obtaining a 
permit or paying a fee. 

Whittington and Plaster both com- 
mented that there was a good amount 
of deer sign on the area, and that Oaky 
Woods would most likely provide 
some excellent hunting for deer. 

"Oaky Woods will fill a big gap for 
hunters in the middle of the state," 
Whittington said. "It should be a fine 
all-around area. We expect it to draw 
hunters from Macon, Warner Robins 
and Dublin, and other towns in that vi- 

To reach Oaky Woods from Macon, 
go south on 1-75 to the Georgia 96 
highway. Go to the left on Ga. 96 
about eight miles to Bonaire. In Bon- 
aire, turn right onto Georgia Highway 
247 and go about eight miles. A mile 
or so past the town of Kathleen, there 
is a large wooden sign on the left side 
of the highway, saying "Oaky Woods 
Management Area." Turn left there on- 
to the dirt road and go about 1 Vi miles 
to the checking station. 

The area is actually in parts of four 
counties, Houston, Twiggs, Bleckley 
and Pulaski. Most of the area is in 
Houston County. 

W. J. Bridges Jr., Vice President of 
Woods and Woodlands for Georgia 
Kraft Co., pointed out that Oaky 
Woods was Georgia Kraft's fourth such 
woodland area to be put into agree- 
ment with the Game and Fish Commis- 
sion for game management and super- 
vision. This area is the largest of the 
four. A total of 90,000 acres of Geor- 
gia Kraft land is now in management 

Mr. Bridges and Rosser Malone, di- 
rector of the Game and Fish Commis- 
sion, said Kraft's forest management 
program, directed to achieve commer- 
cial harvesting of trees, was very com- 
patible with the management ol I 
large and small game. 

Mr. Malone added that the addition 
of Oaky Woods brings the Commis- 
sion's total acreage in managed pub- 
lic hunting areas in Georgia to 876.- 
500 acres. The Commission hopes to 
reach a goal of one million acres man- 
aged for public hunting by 1 970. 

Outlook is bright for better hunting. 





Hunters Choice 

When talking of small game hunting 

in Georgia, the words "hohwhite quail" are 

just naturally a part of the phrase. 

He's the most prominent figure in hunting 

circles hereabouts. 

This is the target often sought by small 
game hunters everywhere. Not only 
does the rabbit provide an interesting 
adversary, he's plentiful most everywhere, 
and ranks high as prime table fare. 

Paint a mental picture of a hunting 

A beagle yapping, hot on the trail 
of a rabbit, with hunters hurrying, 
huffing and puffing, hoping to cut off 
the bunny before he disappears. 

Or a bird dog, creeping forward like 
he was walking on eggs, then sud- 
denly he freezes — tail extended sky- 
ward, forefoot lifted, nose quivering. 
With shotguns ready, hunters edging 
ahead of the dog, then the spontaneous 
burst of birds catapulted into the air 
with a nerve-shattering whirr. 

Or a youngster, .22 rifle in hand, sit- 
ting with his back against a huge hard- 
wood tree, his eyes flitting from limb 
to limb in search of a patch of gray 
fur. The patch appears, then a small 
beady eye. The little rifle cracks, and 
down plummets the squirrel. 

Or perhaps it's a spaniel, nosing 
through the thick underbrush in the 
mountains, keeping an eye open for his 
master, never straying too far ahead. 
From in front of the dog comes an ex- 
plosion as a ruffed grouse bursts into 
the open for a fleeting second, giving 
the hunter a quick snap shot before 
the darting aerial acrobat swerves 
seemingly unbelievably close to a tree 
before zigzagging out of sight through 
the forest. 

All of these scenes are repeated in- 
numerable times each year in Georgia. 
Small game hunting is the sport of 
every outdoorsman. The big game 
hunters started on small game. And 
after deer season has faded away, 
you'll find many of the same hunters 
hanging up their deer rifles, and return- 
ing to the field with shotgun or small- 
bore rifle in search of small game. 

And in the state known everywhere 
as the Quail Capital of the World, there 
is a wide variety of excellent small 
game hunting available. 

Each year, hunters have much to 

The thunderous, tricky 
grouse keeps shooters on 
their toes when they prowl 
the mountains after him. 
If you're not ready for him, 
you'll never put him in 
the bag. 

look forward to in their quest for 
sport and small game. This season 
should be no exception. Prospects look 
good for some very fine hunting in all 
areas of the state. 

Squirrel and quail hunters should 
have little trouble in finding some 
good shooting this year. 

Squirrel populations look good all 
iround the state, say game biologists 
ind other field personnel. Apparently 
here was good reproduction last spring 
ilong with good survival. Both the 
nountains and Piedmont sections look 
good. Also good reports come from the 
Vtetter District in the coastal region. 

Also, the quail picture is a bright 
me for the coming season, for the 
ame reasons — good reproduction and 
;ood survival. Even in north Georgia 
reas, not reputed for fine quail hunt- 
rig, populations seem to be in good or- 
ler this year. 

Grouse hunters can also hope for a 
ood year in the mountain counties, but 
unters will have to take their luck 
'here they can find it on rabbits, 
igain, as last year, rabbits are in short 
jpply in the northern part of the state. 
Grouse are showing up a little more 
1 rominently in the mountains than they 

< id about this time last year. Repro- 

< jction was fair, and like quail, the 
^ ouse had good weather to hatch their 

;gs and raise their young. 

A certain amount of mystery en- 

rouds the grouse and his reproduc- 
tj /e cycles. Records seem to indicate 
t ese birds reach a peak in population 
a 'proximately every 10 years. Midway 
b tween the peaks, the birds appear to 
i crease in numbers to a low point. 

/er the last season or two, Georgia 

ouse seem to be moving along the up- 

ing side of the cycle. 

The farther south you travel in Geor- 
I i, the better rabbit hunting you can 

d . . . and ironically, the less pop- 

ular the bunny is to local hunters. 

Biologists say there was a very good 
crop of young quail last spring, and 
weather conditions were suitable so 
that a higher percentage of the baby 
birds were apparently able to survive 
the rigors of nature. High winds and 
heavy rains or sudden cold snaps can do 
a great deal of damage to numbers of 
tiny birds when clutches of eggs are 
first hatched. Food supplies also seem 
to have been good enough to raise 
plenty of healthy youngsters. 

Food was expected to be a little less 
plentiful for the squirrels. Mast — 
acorns, nuts and similar squirrel foods 
— appears to be somewhat spotty 
and scattered, particularly in north 
Georgia. However, a fine mast crop 
last year produced a good number of 
young squirrels. 

It's a little harder to find land that 
is open enough for good quail popula- 
tions and good shooting. Naturally, 
best quail hunting is down south, where 
habitat and climate are more suitable. 
Yet, it appears that north Georgians 
should have at least as good a year as 
they've been accustomed to in the past, 
and perhaps a little better. 

For example, the Whitesburg Public 
Hunting Area in Carroll and Douglas 
counties seems to have a good supply 
of birds this season, and even in fairly 
heavily wooded country, in the Carters- 
ville area, birds seem to be more 
plentiful than usual. The Allatoona 
Public Hunting Area may be improved 
somewhat for quail hunting this year. 
The Whitesburg, Allatoona, Altamaha 
(except Butler Island), and Seminole 
public hunting areas are open for all 
small game in season, at no charge. 
Hunters are not required to check in 
or out. 

Managed small game hunts are as 

Dec. 2 and 3, 9 and 10, 16 and 17. 

and 23 and 24, hunting for grouse, 
quail, squirrel and rabbits permitted at 
Blue Ridge, Chattahoochee, and Cedar 
Creek. Clark Hill is open on these 
dates except on Dec. 9 and 10, when 
that area is closed. Grouse hunting only 
at Blue Ridge and Chattahoochee, quail 
only at Cedar Creek and Clark Hill. 

Dec. 5-17, Grouse, squirrel and rab- 
bit hunting permitted at Swallow Creek 
and Coleman River. 

Dec. 12-17, and Jan. 9-14, quail, 
squirrel and rabbit hunting permitted 
at Bullard Creek. 

Jan 2-28, quail, squirrel and rabbit 
hunting permitted at Suwanoochee. 

Jan 23-28, quail, squirrel, and rabbit 
hunting permitted at Arabia Bay. 

Jan 30-Feb. 4, quail, squirrel, and 
rabbit hunting permitted at Waycross 
State Forest Area. 

Hunting for small game in season is 
permitted each Wednesday and Satur- 
day at Piedmont Experiment Station 
between the dates of Dec. 3 and Jan. 

Duck hunts at Butler Island, by res- 
ervation only, are permitted each Tues- 
day and Saturday in season. 

A fee of $1 per day for small game 
hunts is charged at these areas: Blue 
Ridge, Chattahoochee, Chestatee, Lake 
Burton, Cedar Creek, Clark Hill, and 
Bullard Creek. Duck hunts at Butler 
Island are for a $5 fee. No charge is 
made and no permit is required at all 
other areas open for small game hunts. 

All these things point to a good year 
for all holders of a Georgia hunting li- 
cense. There's a good variety for all. 
suiting every personal taste, and near 
at hand for nearly everyone. And the 
budget doesn't undergo as much strain 
as for a weeklong deer hunt. Yet, in 
the pot, there is a dish awaiting that is 
a delight to the palate. 

The Wildlife Ranger 

Mark Trail of The Mounties 

By Jim Morrison 

Protecting Georgia's wildlife resources night and day isn't half as glamorous a job for wildlife ranger Wayne Dunn of Marietta 
as many people think it is. Thanks to the license increase, he's better equipped than ever before to do a good job. 

, i 


Just for a moment, imagine your- 
self as a wildlife ranger: a combination 
of the Royal Canadian Mounted Po- 
lice and Mark Trail, sleeping out nights 
under the stars in a sleeping bag, pad- 
dling a canoe over raging rapids, stop- 
ping the mad onslaught of a huge 
black bear with a single bullet, and 
subsisting on wild berries and reptiles, 
or freshly caught trout, all the while 
ignoring the wistful look in the eye of 
ordinary hunters and fishermen, as well 
as the beautiful women dying to take 
you away from it all. 

But the plain hard facts are that the 
wildlife ranger has a difficult job that 
is sometimes dangerous and frequently 
is unrewarding, often with long hours 
and unpleasant working conditions. 

If you are a wildlife ranger, you 
know that a fisherman or boater never 
gets lost when it's warm or the sun is 
shining . . . just at night or on the 
coldest, wettest, and most miserable day 
of the year. Often, it's your job to find 
the body of a drowned person, watched 
from the shore by the distraught 
eyes of wives or mothers. You are the 
man who is cursed by the over-limit 
hunter you have just arrested. You are 
the man who finds your truck with four 
flat tires where you left it in the woods, 
or whose patrol boat is burned and 
sunk during the night. You are the man 
who feels the cold steel of a highpow- 
ered rifle held at your back, or who 
knows that sting of birdshot peppering 
your face at close range. 

You are the man who is the fisher- 
man's friend, who knows where they're 
biting and on what, who knows of a 
good place to hunt, and who plays a 
big role in seeing that it stays that way. 
You're a wildlife ranger. It's your job, 
and you wouldn't have any other one. 
And you're one of the big reasons 
Georgia sportsmen don't mind paying 
a dollar a year more for the wonder- 
ful privilege of hunting and fishing for 
the wildlife you are protecting. 

What did the license increase do for 
wildlife conservation law enforcement? 
One of the most important benefits was 
o immediately provide 21 new wild- 
ife rangers, bringing the total number of 
enforcement officers in the State to 151 
nen. including district chiefs and game 
nanagement area managers who fre- 
juently patrol outside their areas. 

This increase in the patrol forces has 
educed the average area patrolled by 
>ne ranger before the license increase 
rom 500 square miles a man to less 
han 38X square miles each today. Al- 
hough additional men may be needed 
~i the future to meet increasing hunt- 

ing, fishing and boating pressures in 
some localities, for the most part the 
Game and Fish Commission now for the 
first time has an adequate number of 
men for the job. 

In addition, these men are now well 
equipped and well uniformed, with new 
vehicles and patrol boats which are 
more economical to operate and main- 
tain, as well as safer and more ef- 
fective in operation against law vio- 
lators who are quite often well armed, 
determined to escape, and traveling in 
powerful, fast automobiles. 

Since April 1, the Commission has 
purchased 64 pickup trucks and 39 
boats, both as original equipment for 
new personnel and to replace old, 
worn-out equipment. 

With license increase funds, it was 
possible to have a State-wide training 
school for all Department personnel 
for the first time in three years to pre- 
sent the new Department policy man- 
ual. The manual for the first time sets 
out the rules, policies, and procedures 
to be used by rangers throughout the 
entire state in game and fish manage- 
ment, law enforcement, and public 

That these improvements in the 
ranger force were vitally necessary is 
clearly shown by the increase in hunt- 
ers and fishermen licensed in Georgia, 

What Makes a Good Game Warden 

A Game Warden must be neat and a diplo- 
mat, and must be able to settle differences 
between boaters and fishermen to each 
person's satisfaction. 

If he is neat, he's conceited. If he is 
careless, he's a bum. If he's pleasant, he's 
a flirt. If he's brief, he's a grouch. 

He must make instant decisions that an 
attorney will take weeks or even months, 
to defend. 

If he hurries, he overlooks things. If he 
takes his time, he's lazy. If you get caught, 
he had it in for you. If he's energetic, he's 
trying to impress somebody. If he's de- 
liberate, he's too slow to catch a cold. 

He iiust be an expert in First Aid, must 
arrive first at the scene of the accident, 
make a diagnosis of the victim's condition; 
start breathing, stop bleeding, apply splints 
to broken bones and send the injured home 
with scarcely a limp. 

He must be an athlete able to sub- 
due men twice his size and half his age, 
without damage to himself or his uniform 
without using undue force. 

If you strike him, he's a coward. If he 
strikes you back, he's a bully. If you see 
him first, he's a bonehead. 

If he makes a good catch, he's lucky. 
If he gets promoted, he's got pull. If he 
doesn't, Aw what's the use? 

He must be a minister, a social worker, 

Last, but not least, he must be economi- 
cal. He must be able to live on what a 
game warden makes. 

jumping from 222,000 in 1950 to 759,- 
000 in 1964. From 1964-65 to 1965-66 
alone, the number of registered motor- 
boats jumped 1 2 per cent from 58,- 
000 to more than 65,000, with an es- 
timated total of all boats of 106,000. 

Georgia's wildlife rangers have one 
of the biggest jobs in conserving our 
State's wildlife . . . enforcement of 
wildlife conservation laws and regula- 
tions. Their job frequently is not an 
easy one. Although intended to be hu- 
morous, this contribution by an anony- 
mous writer contains a lot of serious 
thoughts about the job of the wildlife 
ranger, or "game warden" as he is uni- 
versally known: 

*1 M 

I rm 


Modern new patrol boats like this 
one skippered by ranger Jim Farris of 
Forsyth on Lake Lanier will help 
the State dame and Fish Commission 
step up water safety effot 
Georgia's busy lakes and 

Many species of wildlife. > 
wild turkey, would soon bet ome 
extinct without stringent enfori 

of conservation laws. Columbus 
hunter Dan Self probably would never 
have bagged this trophy without 
the proti i lion it received from ranker 
chief Lewis Cotton of Manchester 
and his wildlife range ri 



mi hm^k 


Finning quietly in the clear 

water, largemouth bass 

occasionally rolled an eye at 

the people peering in, for 

instance Judi Townsend of 


Busy Eyes 

By Jim Tyler 

Bambi the deer was there along with 
his girl friend Faline. Flower, the 
skunk, was there. And as nature is not 
all composed of cute animals, the wise 
old owl glared from big eyes. An ugly 
old mud turtle looked about. 

Georgia wildlife was on exhibit for 
the nearly 400,000 people who visited 
the Southeastern Fair in Atlanta. 

Looking over this "herd" of wildlife 
was Game and Fish Ranger Arthur 
Abernathy. Arthur spends three to four 
months each year making it possible 
for Georgians to see their wildlife in 
the flesh. He captures many of the 
animals himself. You should see him 
handle a snake. Or gently handle a 

. Some of the animals exhibited were 
not too lively. Onlookers had to take 
a long look to realize that some of the 
animals were not just holding a pose. 
They have been set in very life-looking 
scenes by Joe Hurt, State Museum 

The Southeastern Fair, like most fairs, 
was crammed with hurly burly activity. 
People laughed. People shouted. Peo- 
ple enjoyed themselves. Yet, thank 

goodness, the original characters of a 
fair were still there, and enjoyed — 
the cows, the pigs, the blue ribbons — 
although the teeming midway domi- 

But this was a 20th century fair, 
with 20th century people. Even com- 
mon animals were not common to all. 

"See the cow, children," a woman 
excitedly points to the pens. 

"A cow, whoopee!" 

The family moves along to the Game 
and Fish exhibit where animals not 
commonly seen were to be found. 

"Oh, children, look here, it's Bambi." 


The kids get all gushy over Bambi. 
Pop looks at the swimming catfish and 
bream, eyes the mounted record bass. 
He points out a red fox to Mom. Mom 
feels the excitement of the children, 
and gives an involuntary shudder as the 
kids move on to storm the snake cages. 

It's too late to do anything about it 
this year, but come out next year and 
join the "busy eyes" at the Southeast- 
ern Fair. 

P.S. Be sure and visit us. 

Lost in his own world of discovery, a young lad intently watches a 
diamond-back rattlesnake. 

Bambi and the game keeper (Ranger Arthur Abernathy), 
strike a pose at the Southeastern Fair. 

meet your 


Charles Davidson Jr. represents the 

4th Congressional District in the 

conservation and development of 
Georgia's wildlife resources. 

By Jim Tyler 

Commissioner Davidson and his wife. Cile, 
strike a pose while examining an 1 1 point, 
300 pound mule deer he shot while hunt- 
ing in Wyoming. 

Commissioner Charles Davidson Jr. 
of the fourth Congressional District 
represents a metropolitan area . . . 
DeKalb-Atlanta, a sprawling black 
veined giant that forever reaches out 
and devours chunks of the country- 
side. The earth is remolded for urban 
living, trees toppled, buildings erected 
— and the giant spreads, cancerlike. 

These people, the people caught up 
in the tremendous expansion of cities. 

Granite is Davidson's business. "Scotch on 
the Rocks" is a term coined to depict his 
Scottish family and their granite business. 

whether they be of Atlanta, Augusta, 
or Macon, are a special concern to 
Commissioner Davidson. Where will 
they hunt? Where will they fish? 

"The only answer for the city peo- 
ple is game management areas man- 
aged by the State Game and Fish Com- 
mission," the Commissioner says with 
thought. "My boys are 9, 12, and 14, 
and live in Avondale Estates, a suburb 
of Atlanta. They want to get out and 
shoot that gun, fish a little. So do the 
other city boys. It's my concern to pro- 
vide them with a place to go." 

Records show that about 221,000 
acres in Georgia were under the Game 
and Fish Commission management 
area program when he became a Com- 
missioner in 1959. The acreage has shot 
up to include almost 900,000 acres to- 
day. Now serving his second appoint- 
ment as a commissioner, Davidson says 
assuredly, "This is just a start." 

The motive behind his effort in mak- 
ing it possible for others, the city 
fellow, to have a place to hunt and to 
fish probably stems from his deep satis- 
faction with the outdoors. Commission- 
er Davidson leads the sportsman's 
dream, usually accompanied by his ab- 
solutely beautiful wife. Cile. Off the 
coast of lower California he has hooked 
and felt the tremendous muscle of the 
mighty marlin. He has reeled in a 
thrashing Pacific sailfish from the salt 
water of Mexico. And just recently, in 
Wyoming, he brought down a mule 
deer that measured 161 Vi points (green 
measurement, antlers not dried) under 
Boone and Crockett specifications, a 
trophy he is more than pleased with. 

In Georgia, quai! hunting is his fa- 
vorite sport, but he admits that two- 
thirds of the thrill is watching the dogs 
work. This leads into another aspect 
of his enjoyment of the outdoors . . . 
shooting with a camera. Squeezing the 
camera trigger has been his hobbv for 
some time, anil many excellent photos 
are the result. There is more than 
one way to bag wildlife. 

Granite is his business. The Davidson 
family owns a tremendous granite con- 
cern, probably the largest diversified 
granite business in the country. The 
Davidson dynasty, dubbed "Scotch on 
the Rocks" by Atlanta Journal and 
Constitution writer Willard Neal, was 
started 80 years back by the Commis- 
sioner's grandfather, a stonecutter from 
Scotland who settled in Lithonia to 
continue his trade. 

Within this family owned enter- 
prise, the dynamic 38-year-old business- 
man serves as Vice-President of David- 
son Granite Company; Stone Mountain 
Grit Company; Atlanta, Stone Moun- 
tain and Lithonia Railroad; and presi- 
dent of Ben Hill Development Corp. 

Three years ago, in his first term on 
the Commission, he was chairman dur- 
ing a major administrative change with- 
in the Game and Fish Department. 
He took the leading role in urging a 
reorganization of department leader- 
ship and joined with Governor Carl 
Sanders and the other 10 commission- 
ers in asking for a study by the Gov- 
ernor's Commission for Efficiency and 
Improvement in Government. "I fell it 
was up to me to stand up and take the 
position of the proverb my father raised 
me by. 'truth wins out,' " Davidson 

A study was made — the Bowdoin 
Report. The department was looked 
at critically and subsequently reorgan- 
ized. Wildlife biologists were placed in 
many key administrative positions. 

Commissioner Davidson continues to 
fight for what he thinks is right and 
tempers his judgment by listening with 
an open mind to what the professionals 
the biologists, have to say. before he 
makes a decision. He is pn g essive, 
and young thinking — a del mite asset 
to the ( ommission. 

His philosophy on being a commis- 
sioner: "There is such a short time in 
life to enjoy what you like, and this was 
my opportumts to do something for the 
hunter and fisherman." 


(In the November Issue of Game 
& Fish, the decline of quail habitat 
in Georgia due to declining farm- 
ing and increasing woodland was 
described. This is the second and 
final article of the series.) 

Part Two 



Of The 

By Jin Morrison 

Most observers predict that this 
rapid increase in timberland will level 
off somewhat in the next few years, 
but it is still surprising to think that 
more than two-thirds of Georgia's 37 
million acres is covered by woodlands. 

How strange that seems is shown by 
a story to the effect that when Co- 
lumbus discovered America, a squirrel 
could hop all the way from the Atlan- 
tic Ocean to the Mississippi River 
from tree to tree without ever even 
touching the ground. Now, he could 
only make it by hopping from bill- 
board to billboard! But when we con- 
sider the facts of the matter, our 
furry friend might make it all the way 
to the Mississippi on trees again, if he 
doesn't get flattened by a semi-trailer 
crossing the Interstate! 

Looking back to the days when 
that squirrel's jumping trees began to 
be thinned out, I'd be willing to wager 
that there were some dyed-in-the-wool 
turkey, squirrel, and deer hunters 
around who couldn't understand what 
had happened to "the good old days," 
even though the world's finest quail 
hunting had replaced their forest game. 

But rapidly increasing timberland is 
not the only threat to Georgia's quail 
hunting in future years. Much of the 
remaining open land is now devoted to 
pastures for dairy and beef cattle, 
rather than for cultivation of crops. 
Grasslands are only slightly more pro- 
ductive of quail than forests. 

How does this great increase in for- 
ests and grasslands threaten quail? The 
answer lies in the food and nesting 
habits of the bobwhite, a ground bird 
that relies primarily on highly nutri- 
tious weed seeds for his existence, 
along with some insects. Adapted for 
scratching and pecking in short grass 
and weeds, the quail is not large 
enough or strong enough to turn over 
heavy leaves in the forest to eat 
acorns, as the wild turkey does. He 
also must have more and better seeds 
to eat than are found in the usual 

On the other hand, cultivation of 
even non-edible seed crops such as cot- 
ton stimulates the production of choice 
quail food weeds in the disturbed field 
area, growing in rows between or un- 
der the plants, at the edge of plowed 
fields, in fence rows and gullies, on 
terraces, and other protected spots, es- 
pecially when the crops are too tall 
to plow between. Frequently, these 
crops are heavily fertilized, producing 
heavier numbers of highly nutritious 
weed seed preferred by quail such as 
Johnson weed, ragweed, foxtails, and 

In addition, quail benefit from culti- 
vated small grain crops, such as corn, 
millet, milo, rice, oats, and barley. 

But unfortunately for the bobwhite, 
and for the quail hunter, agriculture of 
this type has declined sharply in Geor- 
gia during the past thirty years, and 
shows no signs of ever returning to the 
days when cotton was king, and so was 
the quail, as Georgia's favorite game 

But, as quail habitat declines into 
woods, it becomes more suitable for 
deer, turkeys, and squirrel. Quail, doves, 
and to a lesser extent rabbits, all be- 
come less numerous. 

This pattern is indicated by the fact 
that deer are now found in all of the 
159 Georgia counties, with a deer sea- 
son in 85 counties this year. Soon, 
every county will be open. During a 
three year period, the total number of 
Georgia deer hunters jumped from 
86,000 during the 1962-63 season to 
more than 113,000 deer hunters in the 
1964-65 season. At the same time, the 
number of deer they bagged shot up- 
wards from 13,100 to almost 21,000 

During the same period, the num- 
ber of quail hunters only remained 
constant at approximately 135.000, 
while the total number of hunters in 
Georgia increased. The quail bag 
dropped off from more than four mil- 
lion birds in 1962-63 to less than 
3,400.000 birds in 1964-65. The figure 
is still quite respectable, even though 
it is declining slowly. 

What is the answer to halting the 
decline? There isn't an easy answer, 
because quail, like all forms of wild- 
life, increase or decrease with the suit- 
ability of their habitat. Man is the only 
creature capable of managing that ha- 
bitat to suit himself, by clearing and 
cultivation, burning, deliberate seeding 
of grass or tree seedlings, or simply 
allowing the land to reseed itself natu- 
rally and grow up. 

In all but the few cases of extremely 
wealthy landowners, the land normally 
will be put into the most profitable 
use that can be found for it, regardless 
of the effect on wildlife, including 
quail. At the present time, cultivation 
beneficial to quail is becoming largely 
economically unfeasible, while cattle 
raising and timber production offer 
profits with less effort than cultivation. 
No amount of money spent by a State 
wildlife conservation agency could stop 
this trend. It would be easier to sweep 
the Atlantic Ocean back with a broom. 

Currently, some governmental offi- 
cials are discussing plans for America 
to "feed the world" by dramatically 
increasing the production of soybeans 
through government programs which 
would put much idle land back into 
production. If this ever occurred on 
a massive scale, then quail hunting 


might again become the predominant 
Georgia game species. 

But, there are a few things that can 
be done to preserve reasonably good 
quail hunting, even on lands that are 
not in cultivation. But even these take 
more effort and expense than the aver- 
age landowner is willing to go to, un- 
less he is interested in good quail hunt- 
ing, usually only for himself and his 

One of the best of these practices 
is controlled burning of woodlands, in- 
cluding both mature hardwoods and 
pines, after they reach a sufficient 
height to prevent low-lying limbs from 
catching fire off the ground and de- 
stroying entire trees with a "crown" 
fire. A slow, "cool" fire set against the 
wind in the late winter on humid, low 
wind days, is an effective force in re- 
moving unproductive brush. After the 
fire, regrowth of annual weeds and 
legumes highly preferred by quail and 
wildlife, such as beggarweed, is stimu- 
lated. Without the competition o f 
woody, brushy plants, these native quail 
foods grow rapidly. If permitted, graz- 
ing should be light. 

Food patches are more expensive 
than controlled burning, but can be 
justified if kept small in size, usually 
from one-eighth to one-half acre 
for quail, especially the lespedezas. 

Other helpful practices include se- 
lective timber cutting to provide open- 
ings in woods to stimulate weed 
growth. On cultivated areas, so-called 
"clean" farming practices should be 
avoided, including burning off fence- 
rows, gullies, and other edge areas 
which serve as cover for wildlife. 
Quail populations are highest on areas 
where the four types of habitat they 
require come together most often: for- 
! ests, brush, grass, and cultivated areas. 
Quail must have some of all four 
ypes of areas to prosper. Forests and 
short grass provide nesting cover, and 
:ultivated areas provide food. 

Undoubtedly, one of the greatest 
)roblems now facing the quail hunt- 
:r, and most other types of hunters, is 
he problem of finding a place where 
le has permission to hunt. Since quail 
sually aren't present in high density, 
nost landowners who hunt themselves 
uard their quail like gold nuggets, to 
e reserved for themselves, their fam- 
y. friends, and neighbors to hunt. Per- 
lission to hunt probably can be se- 
ured more readily for almost all other 
ame species. 

Efforts of the State Game and Fish 

ommission to solve this problem by 

•curing public quail hunting lands 

1 ive not been very successful, for sev- 

< al very good reasons. Quail are most 

C rnimon on farmland, which is isualb 


in small tracts of less than a thousand 
acres, which is too small for much 
public use if good hunting is to be 
maintained. In addition, the landowner 
usually lives on the land and prefers 
to limit hunting on it to a small num- 
ber of people. He is troubled by a 
large number of people wandering on 
his land, sometimes leaving gates open 
for valuable cattle to wander off, 
breaking down fence wires and posts, 
and perhaps peppering livestock or 
littering his property. 

The Game and Fish Commission 
has attempted to lease quail land, but 
so far, only industrial timber com- 
panies and public land in the National 
Forests and a few other areas have 
been leased to the Commission. These 
are primarily forest areas, with little 
or no quail hunting. This picture is 
not likely to change in the near future, 
since only timber companies own large 
acreages that can stand public hunt- 
ing, that do not have the owner living 
there to hunt or be bothered by hunt- 
ers, and who would prefer assistance 
from the State Game and Fish Com- 
mission in controlling hunters and pre- 
venting forest fires and vandalism. 

Some of these areas do have quail 
hunting at least as good as on most 
overgrown areas, but it's not the 
gentleman's bird shooting of "the 
good old days" that could be readily 
hunted walking or from a wagon or on 
horseback. Hunters willing to work can 
still produce quail from these public 
areas. Why more hunters don't take ad- 
vantage of these opportunities is a 

Stocking of pen-raised quail in forest 
or other areas is not the solution, as 
shown by many research projects in 
which banded birds were released in 
the spring or summer for fall shooting. 
Returns of banded birds by hunters 
have seldom exceeded three per cent 
of the birds released, usually consid- 
erable expense to the ill-informed 
hunter. Pen-raised quail do about as 
well as canaries turned loose in the 
wild to fend for themselves. 

Stock : ng wild trapped quail isn't the 
answer either, because there are so 
many wild quail by the millions now 
present all over the state in the native 
brood stock. If an area has suitable 
habitat for quail, birds move into the 
area naturally. When trapped and 
moved to an area of poor lood. such 
as a forest, the birds are quite capable 
of beating the trapper back to their 
original home! I his principle is proven 
by the fact that research projects have 
shown that when ever) last quail is 
killed out of a covey, a new covey of 
birds will appear in the same location 
year after year, if the habitat is still 

Quail feeders aren't the answer 
either. These artificial devices are not 
only expensive to operate, but they 
lose a high percentage of their food to 
pests like rats and mice, squirrels, 
chipmunks, etc. while concentrating 
quail predators, such as hawks, owls, 
and snakes, and bringing the quail to- 
gether in such close contact helps 
spread disease. 

On the other hand, elimination of 
predators like foxes and hawks has 
little effect on quail, which have sur- 
vived in high numbers for thousands of 
years with no predator control at all. 
Most predators take more undesirable 
species like rats and mice than they do 
game birds and animals. 

No gathering of quail hunters 
would be complete without some com- 
ment being made about the "good old 
days" when quail were fat and chunky. 
Now, they say, the birds are small and 
wild. "Mexican quail," we are told, 
have inbred with the "good ole" bob- 
whites of our youth. However, scien- 
tific investigation has failed to show 
any such decline of bobwhite size. 
Game biologists state flatly that quail 
brought from Mexico :n the late 40's 
have now apparently all died out be- 
cause of the difference in habitat of 
Mexico and Georgia. 

As to the wild characteristics of 
bobwhites, the game biologists once 
again feel that the barbershop biologist 
is mostly off base when he claims that 
quail have changed. They say that the 
birds haven't changed — but the habi- 
tat has. Birds that held still in open 
farmland areas until being flushed un- 
derfoot don't have to wait to fly in 
thick brush or "swamps" where they 
can run and escape danger as easily 
as flying. 

The biologists say that some quail 
have always been found in "the 
swamps" and in thick places, but no 
one hunted them because of the diffi- 
culty. Now, the thick places are get- 
ting thicker and more numerous. Be- 
cause these memories of "the good old 
days" never seem to include the days 
when we walked miles and hardly got 
a shot, it's probably inevitable that 
"things'U never be as good .is they used 
to be." 

but to be more practical about it. 
quail hunting or farm game hunting 
is for those that prepare lor it. either 
with a little extra effort, extia expense, 
or both. Georgia's magnificent quail 
hunting on cultivated areas will 
be good, in spite of what happens else- 
where. But with controlled burning in 
foresl areas and lood patches around 
pastures, the dedicated hunter can in- 
sure that on his property, at least. 
Georgia will always be "the Quail 
Capital of the World." 




Georgia Sportsmen meet in Macon • By Glen Smith 

Fair treatment of Georgia's 100,000 
motorboat owners in the distribution of 
gasoline fuel taxes has been urged by 
the Georgia Sportsmen's Federation. 

Meeting at their annual convention 
in Macon, the group adopted a reso- 
lution calling for a constitutional 
amendment to earmark taxes on motor- 
boat fuels for construction of boat 
launching ramps and other boating pro- 
grams. It has been estimated that two 
and one half per cent of the gasoline 
taxes in Georgia comes from motor- 
boating. At present, all such taxes are 
earmarked for highway construction 

The other major resolution ap- 
proved by the convention concerned 
the growing problem of strip mining 
throughout the state. It specifically calls 
for legislation allowing the state to is- 
sue permits to strip miners after they 
post a performance bond. Strip miners 
would also be required to reclaim the 
land they mine when they have com- 
pleted their operations. 

During the convention, the group 
heard reports on the activities of the 
State Game and Fish Commission from 
Director Rosser Malone and assistant 
directors Jack Crockford and Howard 
Zeller. Other speakers included Charles 
Kelly, game and fish chief of the Ala- 
bama Department of Conservation. 

New officers were chosen for the 
next four years. Elected president was 
James L. Adams of Tucker. Executive 
vice president will be Clyde Greenway, 
also of Tucker. The secretary-treasurer 
will be Phillip Ham of Forsyth. 

Vice presidents serving eight of the 
state's ten congressional districts were 
also chosen. They are: Felton Mikell 
of Statesboro, First District; Bill Jones 

Outgoing president Tommie Holliman of Thomaston, right, congratulates new Georgia 
Sportsmen's Federation president Jim Adams of Tucker, center, and secretary-treasurer 
Pliillip Ham of Forsyth. 

District; Jessie 

Third District; 

Atlanta, Fourth 

of Macon, Sixth 

of Albany, Second 

Miller of Richland, 

J.W.K. Holliday of 

District; Dave Green 

District; Frank Atwood of Carters- 

ville. Seventh District; Lewis Raulerson 

of Haylow, Eighth District; and Don 

Huey of Canton, Ninth District. 

At its awards banquet, the Federa- 
tion presented a number of trophies to 
individuals and groups for outstanding 
achievements in conservation during the 
last year. 

Dr. Phillip Greear, chairman of the 
Department of Biology at Shorter Col- 
lege in Rome, and Dr. Clyde Connell, 
chairman of the Department of Biol- 
ogy at Valdosta State College were 
cited as Conservation Educators of the 
Year for their leadership in two new 
Natural Resource Use workshops. 

The Legislative Conservationist of 
the Year is George Busbee, representa- 

From left to right. President Adams with 

Statesboro, and Dr. Phillip Greear, Rome. 

of the conservation educator of the year award; Boyd is president of the Bulloch County 

Sportsmen's Club, judged outstanding club of the year. 

Dr. Clyde Connel, Valdosta, Doy Boyd, 
Connel and Greear were joint recipients 


i ■ .^^■r^ 

B '1 9& 

Hr ^HPfl 

1 ; 


tive from Dougherty County. As Ad- 
ministration Floor Leader, Mr. Busbee 
was cited for his support of the hunt- 
ing and fishing license increase bill 
passed during the last session of the 
Legislature, which provided the State 
Game and Fish Commission with a one 
million dollar budget increase. 

Other awards went to: Tommy Boren 
of Bibb County, Youth Conservation- 
ist of the Year and Youth Conserva- 
tionist of the Sixth District; Steve Phil- 
lips of DeKalb County, Youth Con- 
servationist of the Fourth District; the 
Southeast Bulloch F.F.A. Chapter of 
Brooklet, First District; Dr. Ralph K. 
Tyson, Dean of Students at Georgia 
Southern College, Wildlife Conserva- 
tionist of the Year; Mr. B. Fred Sta- 
tham, Soil Conservationist of the Year; 
Mr. Trammel Carmichael of Cherokee 
County, Water Conservationist of the 
Year; Mr. Harvey Brown. Forest 
Conservationist of the Year; Mr. James 
Avery Lee, Farm Director of WMAZ 
in Macon, Conservation Communica- 
tions Award of the Year; Mr. Bob C. 
Smith of the Towaliga Soil and Water 
Conservation District, Conservation Or- 
ganization of the Year; Mr. Malcolm 
Edwards, Outstanding Vice President 
of the Georgia Sportsman's Federation; 
The Bulloch County Sportsmen's Club, 
Outstanding Sportsmen's Club. 

The Governor's Award for Conser- 
vationist of the Year went to Jeff 
Owens, the area conservationist for 
the Soil Conservation Service, for his 
work in the Piedmont and Towaliga 
Soil and Water Conservation Districts. 

Present at the Convention were 30C 
delegates representing 43 affiliatec 
clubs with 4.300 members. 





Southeast Ga. Season-Oct. 29, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the following 

Brantley, Bryan, Bulloch, Burke, Cam- 
den, Candler, Charlton, Chatham, Clinch 
County south of the Atlantic Coastline 
Railroad and east of the run of Suwanoo- 
chee Creek, Echols County east of U. S. 
129 and south of Ga. 187, Effingham, 
Emanuel north of U. S. 80, Evans, Glas- 
cock, Glynn, Jefferson, Jenkins, Liberty, 
Long, Mcintosh, Pierce County south of 
U. S. 82 and east of Ga. 121, Screven, 
Tattnall, Washington and Wayne counties. 
Bag Limit-Two (2) Bucks. Hunting with 
dogs is allowed in all of the above counties. 


Season— Oct. 15. 1966 through Feb. 28, 

Bag Limit— 3 Daily, possession limit 6. 


Season-Oct. 15, 1966 through Feb. 28 

Bag Limii-\0 Daily. 


Season-Oct. 29, 1966 through Feb. 28, 
1967, Exception: Coweta County opens 
Oct. 1, 1966 through Jan. 21, 1967. 
No Bag Li/nit. 


N. Ga. Season-Oct. 29, 1966 through Feb. 

28, 1967. 

Bag Limit-One ( 1 ) per night per person. 
S. Ga. Season— No closed season. 
Vo Bag Limit. 


Southwest Ga. Season-Nov. 5, 1966 
hrough Jan. 5, 1967 in the following 
on n ties: 

Baker, Calhoun, Chattahoochee, Dcca- 
ur, Dougherty, Early, Grady, Lee County 

, *est of U. S. 19, Marion, Mitchell, Mus- 

■ ogee, Seminole, Stewart, Terrell, Thomas, 

Vebster and Worth County south ol I . S. 


lag Limit-Two (2) Bucks, except in 
. aker, Calhoun. Grady, Dougherty, and 


Thomas counties where the bag limit is 
two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one 
(1) doe. Exception: The Worth County 
bag limit shall be one (1) buck only for 
the season. 

Hunting with dogs will be allowed in 
all of the counties listed above during the 
season with the exception of Chattahoo- 
chee, Muscogee, and Worth counties, where 
hunting with dogs will be prohibited in 
order to prevent over-harvest of deer and 
to insure continued growth of the deer 

Only One More Issue 
of Game & Fish 

Unless you subscribe to 
Game & Fish by January 15, 
1967, the January issue of 
Game& Fish will be the last 
issue you will receive. 

Don't miss the next 12 ac- 
tion-packed issues of Game 
& Fish. Use the handy en- 
velope, and subscribe now! 


West Central Ga. Season— Nov. 5, 1966 
through Jan. 5, 1967 in the counties of 
( hattahoochee, Marion, Muscogee, Stew- 
art, and Talbot. 

Bag Limit— One ( 1 ) per season. 
Southwest Ga. Season-Nov. 19, 1966 
through Feb. 28, 1967 in the counties of 
Baker, Calhoun, Decatur, Dougherty, Early, 
Grady, Miller. Mitchell, Seminole, and 
Bag Limit— Two (2) per season. 


Season— Nov. 19, 1966 through Feb. 28, 

Be Limit— 12 Daily, possession limit 36. 


Season— Nov. 19, 1966 through Feb 28 

N. Ga. Bag Limit— 5 Daily. 
S. Ga. Bag Limit- 10 Daily. 


Season-Nov. 7, 1966 through January IS 

Bag Limit— 2 daily, possession limit 4. See 
federal regulations. Migratory stamp re- 
quired. Liberty and Mcintosh counties 


Season— Nov. 24, 1966 through January 7 


Bag Limit-Ducks: 4 daily, including no 
more than 2 wood ducks or 2 canvasbacks. 
Possession limit 8, including no more than 
4 wood ducks or 4 canvasbacks. Mergans- 
ers: 5 daily, including no more than 1 
hooded merganser. Possession limit is 10, 
including no more than 2 hooded mer- 
gansers. Coots: 10 daily, possession limit 
is 20. See federal waterfowl regulations 
available with the required $3.00 federal 
migratory bird (duck) stamp at all main 
U. S. Post Offices. State regulations for 
waterfowl hunting are the same as the 
federal regulations. 



Southeast Ga. Season— Dec. 1, 1966 through 
Jan. 5, 1967 in the counties of Brant- 
ley, Bryan, Bulloch, Camden, Charlton, 
Chatham, Effingham, Evans, Glynn, Lib- 
erty, Long, Mcintosh, Pierce, Screven, 
Tattnall, and Wayne. 
Bag Limit— One ( I ) turkey gobbler per 
season. Hens are protected. 


Season-Dec. 12 through Jan. 30, 1967. 
Bag Limit— 5 Daily, possession limit 10. 
See federal regulations. 


Season— Dec. 6 through Jan. 14. 

Bag Limit— 12 daily, possession limit 24. 


^ UNIVF/?^ 







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